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International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights | International Covenant on Economic Social and Cultural Rights
 
   

 

 

 

 

 

 

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CHINESE

NATIVE TO : ChinaTaiwanSingaporeHong Kong,MacauMalaysia, the United States,CanadaIndonesiaVietnam, and other places with significant overseas Chinese communities

 

 

 

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CHINESE Universal Declaration Of Human Rights

Usage By Country
Official Language: China, Singapore Official Status: Macao Home Speakers: Myanmar, Cambodia, Indonesia, Philippines, Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam. It is also an important immigrant language, especially in North America. 

 

 
Official language in

 China
 Hong Kong
 Macau
 Taiwan
 Singapore
Burma Wa State, Burma

 United Nations

 

Total Speakers 885.000.000 (1990) 

 
Native speakers

unknown (1.2 billion cited 1984–2000)

 

CHINESE MANDARIN UDHR

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights

世界人权宣言

联合国大会一九四八年十二月十日第217A(III)号决议通过并颁布

1948 年 12 月 10 日,联合国大会通过并颁布《世界人权宣言》。这一具有历史意义的《宣言》颁布后,大会要求所有会员国广为宣传,并且“不分国家或领土的政治地位,主要在各级学校和其他教育机构加以传播、展示、阅读和阐述。”《宣言》全文如下:

序言

鉴于对人类家庭所有成员的固有尊严及其平等的和不移的权利的承认,乃是世界自由、正义与和平的基础,

鉴于对人权的无视和侮蔑已发展为野蛮暴行,这些暴行玷污了人类的良心,而一个人人享有言论和信仰自由并免予恐惧和匮乏的世界的来临,已被宣布为普通人民的最高愿望,

鉴于为使人类不致迫不得已铤而走险对暴政和压迫进行反叛,有必要使人权受法治的保护,

鉴于有必要促进各国间友好关系的发展,

鉴于各联合国国家的人民已在联合国宪章中重申他们对基本人权、人格尊严和价值以及男女平等权利的信念,并决心促成较大自由中的社会进步和生活水平的改善,

鉴于各会员国业已誓愿同联合国合作以促进对人权和基本自由的普遍尊重和遵行,

鉴于对这些权利和自由的普遍了解对于这个誓愿的充分实现具有很大的重要性,

因此现在,大会,发布这一世界人权宣言,作为所有人民和所有国家努力实现的共同标准,以期每一个人和社会机构经常铭念本宣言,努力通过教诲和教育促进对权利和自由的尊重,并通过国家的和国际的渐进措施,使这些权利和自由在各会员国本身人民及在其管辖下领土的人民中得到普遍和有效的承认和遵行;

第一条

人人生而自由,在尊严和权利上一律平等。他们赋有理性和良心,并应以兄弟关系的精神相对待。

第二条

人人有资格享有本宣言所载的一切权利和自由,不分种族、肤色、性别、语言、宗教、政治或其他见解、国籍或社会出身、财产、出生或其他身分等任何区别。

并且不得因一人所属的国家或领土的政治的、行政的或者国际的地位之不同而有所区别,无论该领土是独立领土、托管领土、非自治领土或者处于其他任何主权受限制的情况之下。

第三条

人人有权享有生命、自由和人身安全。

第四条

任何人不得使为奴隶或奴役;一切形式的奴隶制度和奴隶买卖,均应予以禁止。

第五条

任何人不得加以酷刑,或施以残忍的、不人道的或侮辱性的待遇或刑罚。

第六条

人人在任何地方有权被承认在法律前的人格。

第七条

法律之前人人平等,并有权享受法律的平等保护,不受任何歧视。人人有权享受平等保护,以免受违反本宣言的任何歧视行为以及煽动这种歧视的任何行为之害。

第八条

任何人当宪法或法律所赋予他的基本权利遭受侵害时,有权由合格的国家法庭对这种侵害行为作有效的补救。

第九条

任何人不得加以任意逮捕、拘禁或放逐。

第十条

人人完全平等地有权由一个独立而无偏倚的法庭进行公正的和公开的审讯,以确定他的权利和义务并判定对他提出的任何刑事指控。

第十一条

㈠ 凡受刑事控告者,在未经获得辩护上所需的一切保证的公开审判而依法证实有罪以前,有权被视为无罪。

㈡ 任何人的任何行为或不行为,在其发生时依国家法或国际法均不构成刑事罪者,不得被判为犯有刑事罪。刑罚不得重于犯罪时适用的法律规定。

第十二条

任何人的私生活、家庭、住宅和通信不得任意干涉,他的荣誉和名誉不得加以攻击。人人有权享受法律保护,以免受这种干涉或攻击。

第十三条

㈠ 人人在各国境内有权自由迁徙和居住。

㈡ 人人有权离开任何国家,包括其本国在内,并有权返回他的国家。

第十四条

㈠ 人人有权在其他国家寻求和享受庇护以避免迫害。

㈡ 在真正由于非政治性的罪行或违背联合国的宗旨和原则的行为而被起诉的情况下,不得援用此种权利。

第十五条

㈠ 人人有权享有国籍。

㈡ 任何人的国籍不得任意剥夺,亦不得否认其改变国籍的权利。

第十六条

㈠ 成年男女,不受种族、国籍或宗教的任何限制有权婚嫁和成立家庭。他们在婚姻方面,在结婚期间和在解除婚约时,应有平等的权利。

㈡ 只有经男女双方的自由和完全的同意,才能缔婚。

㈢ 家庭是天然的和基本的社会单元,并应受社会和国家的保护。

第十七条

㈠ 人人得有单独的财产所有权以及同他人合有的所有权。

㈡ 任何人的财产不得任意剥夺。

第十八条

人人有思想、良心和宗教自由的权利;此项权利包括改变他的宗教或信仰的自由,以及单独或集体、公开或秘密地以教义、实践、礼拜和戒律表示他的宗教或信仰的自由。

第十九条

人人有权享有主张和发表意见的自由;此项权利包括持有主张而不受干涉的自由,和通过任何媒介和不论国界寻求、接受和传递消息和思想的自由。

第二十条

㈠ 人人有权享有和平集会和结社的自由。

㈡ 任何人不得迫使隶属于某一团体。

第二十一条

㈠ 人人有直接或通过自由选择的代表参与治理本国的权利。

㈡ 人人有平等机会参加本国公务的权利。

㈢ 人民的意志是政府权力的基础;这一意志应以定期的和真正的选举予以表现,而选举应依据普遍和平等的投票权,并以不记名投票或相当的自由投票程序进行。

第二十二条

每个人,作为社会的一员,有权享受社会保障,并有权享受他的个人尊严和人格的自由发展所必需的经济、社会和文化方面各种权利的实现,这种实现是通过国家努力和国际合作并依照各国的组织和资源情况。

第二十三条

㈠ 人人有权工作、自由选择职业、享受公正和合适的工作条件并享受免于失业的保障。

㈡ 人人有同工同酬的权利,不受任何歧视。

㈢ 每一个工作的人,有权享受公正和合适的报酬,保证使他本人和家属有一个符合人的生活条件,必要时并辅以其他方式的社会保障。

㈣ 人人有为维护其利益而组织和参加工会的权利。

第二十四条

人人有享有休息和闲暇的权利,包括工作时间有合理限制和定期给薪休假的权利。

第二十五条

㈠ 人人有权享受为维持他本人和家属的健康和福利所需的生活水准,包括食物、衣着、住房、医疗和必要的社会服务;在遭到失业、疾病、残废、守寡、衰老或在其他不能控制的情况下丧失谋生能力时,有权享受保障。

㈡ 母亲和儿童有权享受特别照顾和协助。一切儿童,无论婚生或非婚生,都应享受同样的社会保护。

第二十六条

㈠ 人人都有受教育的权利,教育应当免费,至少在初级和基本阶段应如此。初级教育应属义务性质。技术和职业教育应普遍设立。高等教育应根据成绩而对一切人平等开放。

㈡ 教育的目的在于充分发展人的个性并加强对人权和基本自由的尊重。教育应促进各国、各种族或各宗教集团间的了解、容忍和友谊,并应促进联合国维护和平的各项活动。

㈢ 父母对其子女所应受的教育的种类,有优先选择的权利。

第二十七条

㈠ 人人有权自由参加社会的文化生活,享受艺术,并分享科学进步及其产生的福利。

㈡ 人人对由于他所创作的任何科学、文学或美术作品而产生的精神的和物质的利益,有享受保护的权利。

第二十八条

人人有权要求一种社会的和国际的秩序,在这种秩序中,本宣言所载的权利和自由能获得充分实现。

第二十九条

㈠ 人人对社会负有义务,因为只有在社会中他的个性才可能得到自由和充分的发展。

㈡ 人人在行使他的权利和自由时,只受法律所确定的限制,确定此种限制的唯一目的在于保证对旁人的权利和自由给予应有的承认和尊重,并在一个民主的社会中适应道德、公共秩序和普遍福利的正当需要。

㈢ 这些权利和自由的行使,无论在任何情形下均不得违背联合国的宗旨和原则。

第三十条

本宣言的任何条文,不得解释为默许任何国家、集团或个人有权进行任何旨在破坏本宣言所载的任何权利和自由的活动或行为。

 

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CHINESE

Chinese (汉语 / 漢語Hànyǔ or 中文Zhōngwén) is a group of related but in many cases mutually unintelligible languagevarieties, which forms one of the branches of the Sino-Tibetan language family. Chinese is spoken by the Han majority and many other ethnic groups in China. More that one billion people, or about one-fifth of the world's population, speak some form of Chinese as their first language.

Regulated by

China National Commission on Language and Script Work
Taiwan National Languages Committee
Singapore Promote Mandarin Council/Speak Mandarin Campaign[3]
Malaysia Chinese Language Standardisation Council

 

Varieties of Chinese are usually described by native speakers as dialects of a single Chinese language, but linguists note that they are as diverse as a language family.[a] The internal diversity of Chinese has been likened to that of the Romance languages. There are between 7 and 13 main regional groups of Chinese (depending on classification scheme), of which the most spoken, by far, is Mandarin (about 960 million), followed by Wu (80 million), Yue (60 million) and Min (50 million). Most of these groups are mutually unintelligible, although some, like Xiang and the Southwest Mandarin dialects, may share common terms and some degree of intelligibility. All varieties of Chinese are tonal and analytic.

Standard Chinese (Putonghua/Guoyu/Huayu) is a standardized form of spoken Chinese based on the Beijing dialect of Mandarin. It is the official language of the People's Republic of China (PRC) and the Republic of China (ROC, also known as Taiwan), as well as one of four official languages of Singapore. It is one of the six official languages of the United Nations. Thewritten form of the standard language (中文Zhōngwén), based on the logograms known as Chinese characters (漢字 / 汉字;hànzi), is shared by literate speakers of otherwise unintelligible dialects.

Of the other varieties of Chinese, Cantonese (the prestige variety of Yue) is influential in Guangdong province and Cantonese-speaking overseas communities and remains one of the official languages of Hong Kong (together with English) and of Macau (together with Portuguese). Min Nan, part of the Min group, is widely spoken in southern Fujian, in neighbouring Taiwan (where it is known as Taiwanese or Hoklo) and in Southeast Asia (also known as Hokkien in the Philippines, Singapore, and Malaysia). There are also sizeable Hakka and Shanghainese diasporas, for example in Taiwan, where most Hakka communities are also conversant in Taiwanese and Standard Chinese.

Recognised minority language in

 Canada
 Malaysia

 United States

 

 

Background 
Chinese is the official language of over 1,1 billion people and, as a mother tongue, it is the most spoken language in the world. With regard to its classification, it is considered an isolated language, though it is the most important one within the Sino-Tibetan superfamily. Chinese is the language of the Han people, the majority ethnic group of China. Modern Standard Chinese is known as "Putonghua" (General Language) in mainland China, and as "Guoyu" (National Language) in Taiwan (Mandarin in English). Like most related languages it is monosyllabic, has very little inflection, and is tonal, assigning to words a distinctive relative pitch or pitch contour. Spoken Chinese comprises many regional varieties. Although they employ a common written form, many are mutually unintelligible. The dialect spoken in Beijing constitutes standard Mandarin, which forms the basis both of the modern written vernacular and of the official spoken language. Main varieties include Wu, Min, Cantonese, and Hakka. As a script, Chinese is derived from picture writing. It is written with thousands of distinctive characters called ideographs which have no relation to the sound of a word. In a large dictionary there are 40-50,000 characters, while the telegraphic code book contains nearly 10,000. The earliest Chinese characters were pictographs, such as a crescent for the moon, or a circle with a dot in the center to represent the sun. Gradually these gave way to non-pictorial ideographs which, in addition to standing for tangible objects, also represented abstract concepts. The majority of Chinese characters, however, consist of two elements: a "signific", which indicates the meaning of a word, and a "phonetic", which indicates the sound. Despite their staggering complexity, the Chinese characters do have the advantage of making written communication possible between people speaking mutually unintelligible dialects and languages. A given word may be quite different in Mandarin and Cantonese, but it would be written identically in the two dialects. Since the Chinese characters are also used in Japanese, each language, when written, is partially intelligible to a speaker of the other, despite the fact that the two spoken languages are totally dissimilar. Numerous attempts have been made over the years to simplify the Chinese system of writing. In the English-speaking world, since 1892, Chinese words have usually been transliterated according to a phonetic spelling system propounded by British scholars Sir Thomas Wade and Herbert Giles. Since 1958 a phonetic romanization known as "Pinyin" (spelling) has had official standing in the People's Republic of China. 

 

 

Dialects
Wu (incl. Shanghainese)
Min (incl. Teochew, Amoy, Taiwanese)
Yue (incl. Cantonese, Taishanese)

 

 

Language codes
ISO 639-1 zh
ISO 639-2 chi (B)
zho (T)
ISO 639-3 zho – inclusive code
Individual codes:
cdo – Min Dong
cjy – Jinyu
cmn – Mandarin
cpx – Pu Xian
czh – Huizhou
czo – Min Zhong
gan – Gan
hak – Hakka
hsn – Xiang
mnp – Min Bei
nan – Min Nan
wuu – Wu
yue – Yue
och – Old Chinese
ltc – Late Middle Chinese
lzh – Classical Chinese

 

 

HISTORY

Most linguists classify all the varieties of Chinese language as part of the Sino-Tibetan language family and believe that there was an original Proto-Sino-Tibetan language from which the Sinitic and Tibeto-Burman languages descended. The relation between Chinese and other Sino-Tibetan languages is an area of active research, as is the attempt to reconstruct the proto-language. The main difficulty in this effort is that, while there is enough documentation to allow one to reconstruct the ancient Chinese sounds, there is no written documentation that records the division between Proto-Sino-Tibetan and ancient Chinese. In addition, many of the older languages that would allow us to reconstruct Proto-Sino-Tibetan are very poorly understood and many of the techniques developed for analysis of the descent of the (fusional) Indo-European languages from Proto-Indo-European do not apply to Chinese, an analytic language, because of the paucity of inflectional morphemes in modern varieties.

Categorization of the development of Chinese is a subject of scholarly debate.

Old Chinese was the language common during the early and middle Zhou dynasty (1046–256 BCE), texts of which include inscriptions on bronze artifacts, the Classic of Poetry and portions of the Book of Documents and I Ching. The rhymes of theClassic of Poetry and the phonetic elements found in the majority of Chinese characters provide hints to their Old Chinese pronunciations. Work on reconstructing Old Chinese started with Qing dynasty philologists. The first complete reconstruction was devised by the Swedish linguist Bernhard Karlgren in the early 1900s; most present systems rely heavily on Karlgren's insights and methods. Old Chinese was not wholly uninflected. It possessed a rich sound system in which aspiration andvoicing differentiated the consonants, but probably was still without tones.

Some early Indo-European loan-words in Chinese have been proposed, notably   "honey",  shī "lion," and perhaps also  "horse",  zhū "pig",  quǎn "dog", and  é "goose". Reconstructions of Old Chinese are not definitive, so this hypothesis is tentative.[b] The source also notes that southern dialects of Chinese have more monosyllabic words than the Mandarin Chinese dialects.

Middle Chinese was the language used during Southern and Northern Dynasties and the SuiTang, and Song dynasties (6th through 10th centuries CE). It can be divided into an early period, reflected by the Qieyun rime book (601 CE), and a late period in the 10th century, reflected by rhyme tables such as the Yunjing constructed by ancient Chinese philologists to summarize the Qieyun system. Linguists are more confident of having reconstructed how Middle Chinese sounded. The evidence for the pronunciation of Middle Chinese comes from several sources: modern dialect variations, rhyming dictionaries and tables, foreign transliterations, and Chinese phonetic translations of foreign words. The pronunciation of the borrowed Chinese words in Japanese, Vietnamese and Korean also provide valuable insights.

The development of the spoken Chinese languages from early historical times to the present has been complex. Most Chinese people, in Sichuan and in a broad arc from the north-east (Manchuria) to the south-west (Yunnan), use various Mandarin dialects as their home language. The prevalence of Mandarin throughout northern China is largely due to north China's plains. By contrast, the mountains and rivers of middle and southern China promoted linguistic diversity.

Until the mid-20th century, most southern Chinese only spoke their native local variety of Chinese. As Nanjing was the capitalduring the early Ming dynasty, Nanjing Mandarin became dominant at least until the later years of the Qing dynasty. Since the 17th century, the Qing dynasty had set up orthoepy academies (正音书院/正音書院; Zhèngyīn Shūyuàn) to make pronunciation conform to the standard of the capital Beijing. For the general population, however, this had limited effect. The non-Mandarin speakers in southern China also continued to use their various languages for every aspect of life. The Beijing Mandarin court standard was used solely by officials and civil servants and was thus fairly limited.

This situation did not change until the mid-20th century with the creation (in both the PRC and the ROC, but not in Hong Kong) of a compulsory educational system committed to teaching Mandarin. As a result, Mandarin is now spoken by virtually all young and middle-aged citizens of mainland China and on TaiwanCantonese, not Mandarin, was used in Hong Kong during the time of its British colonial period (owing to its large Cantonese native and migrant populace) and remains today its official language of education, formal speech, and daily life, but Mandarin has become increasingly influential since the 1997 handover.

The term sinophone, coined in 2005 in analogy to anglophone and francophone, refers to those who speak at least one Chinese language natively, or prefer it as a medium of communication. The term is derived from Sinae, the Latin word for ancient China.

VARIETIES OF CHINESE

Jerry Norman estimated that there are hundreds of mutually unintelligible varieties of Chinese. These varieties form a dialect continuum, in which differences in speech generally become more pronounced as distances increase, though the rate of change varies immensely. Generally, mountainous South China displays more linguistic diversity than the North China Plain. In parts of South China, a major city's dialect may only be marginally intelligible to close neighbours. For instance, Wuzhou is about 120 miles upstream from Guangzhou, but its dialect is more like that of Guangzhou than is that of Taishan, 60 miles southwest of Guangzhou and separated from it by several rivers. In parts ofFujian the speech of neighbouring counties or even villages may be mutually unintelligible

 

CLASSIFICATION

Local varieties of Chinese are conventionally classified into seven dialect groups, largely on the basis of the different evolution of Middle Chinese voiced initials:

The classification of Li Rong, which is used in the Language Atlas of China (1987), distinguishes three further groups:

 

 

 

 

     
     
     

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Credit : wikipedia.org | ohchr.org

 

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