The Universal Declaration of Human Rights

 

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The International Bill Of Human Rights is the collective name of Universal Human Rights established in different periods, by Resolution of the General Assembly Of The UNITED NATIONS and International Treaties. The IBofHR consists of : 1. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted in December 10th 1948 by the General Assembly of The United Nations. Resolution 217 A ( III ) . 2. The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights of 1966, and the Two Optional Protocols . 3. The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights of 1966 . Both Covenants of 1966 were in force since 1974, after being ratified by a sufficient number of Countries or Member States .

 

The General Assembly Resolution 217 A III

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is a milestone document in the history of human rights. Drafted by representatives with different legal and cultural backgrounds from all regions of the world, the Declaration was proclaimed by the United Nations General Assembly in Paris on 10 December 1948 General Assembly resolution 217 A (III)  as a common standard of achievements for all peoples and all nations. It sets out, for the first time, fundamental human rights to be universally protected. ( French) | < < > > | ( Spanish )

 

  Free Mandarin 官話/官话 UDHR
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  • Native speakers : 420 Millions ( 2010 )

  • Region : Spain, Hispanic America , Equatorial Guinea .

 
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  • Native speakers : 360 - 400 Millions ( 2007 )

  • Region : Originally Great Britain, now Worldwide .

 
  Free Hindi मानक हिन्द UDHR
  • ISO 639-3 code : hin

  • Native speakers : 258 Millions ( 2001 )

  • Region : India, Significant communities in South Africa, Nepal .

 

 

 

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All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status.
Furthermore, no distinction shall be made on the basis of the political, jurisdictional or international status of the country or territory to which a person belongs, whether it be independent, trust, non-self-governing or under any other limitation of sovereignty.
Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person.
No one shall be held in slavery or servitude; slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms.
No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.
Everyone has the right to recognition everywhere as a person before the law.

 

 

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Structure Of The UDHR

The underlying structure of the Universal Declaration was introduced in its second draft, which was prepared by René Cassin. Cassin worked from a first draft, which was prepared by John Peters Humphrey. The structure was influenced by the Code Napoléon, including a preamble and introductory general principles.

Cassin compared the Declaration to the portico of a Greek temple, with a foundation, steps, four columns, and a pediment. Articles 1 and 2 are the foundation blocks, with their principles of dignity, liberty, equality, and brotherhood. The seven paragraphs of the preamble—setting out the reasons for the Declaration—represent the steps. The main body of the Declaration forms the four columns. The first column (articles 3–11) constitutes rights of the individual such as the right to life and the prohibition of slavery. Articles 6 through 11 refer to the fundamental legality of human rights with specific remedies cited for their defense when violated. The second column (articles 12–17) constitutes the rights of the individual in civil and political society. The third column (articles 18–21) is concerned with spiritual, public, and political freedoms such as freedom of associationthoughtconscience, and religion. The fourth column (articles 22–27) sets out social, economic, and cultural rights. In Cassin's model, the last three articles of the Declaration provide the pediment which binds the structure together. These articles are concerned with the duty of the individual to society and the prohibition of use of rights in contravention of the purposes of the United Nations Organisation.

 

 

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