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HUITOTO MURUI LANGUAGE

Usage By Country
Home Speakers: Peru, Colombia 

Total Speakers 
2,900 
Background 
It belongs to the Witotoan family and has 1,000 speakers is Peru and nearly 2,000 in Colombia. Huitoto has more prestige in Colombia than in Peru. 
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HUITOTO MURUI  Universal Declaration Of Human Rights

 

HUITOTO MURUI UDHR

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights



Nana Comini Uri Illafue

Naga nairai Naciones Unidas railla rafuemo danomo duide. Perú iemo duide. Naga nairaimona damie jaide. Rafuena siadollena, danomo oficabidimaci. 10 de diciembre de 1948 bie rabemo ita rafuena llotimaci. Nana ie rafuena nana comini uiñollena jitaidimaci. Ie jira Perú ie gobierno bie rafuena birui cuetatate.

Nano llogafue

Biena uiño: Nana comini jiaie comini anamo iñellena, ie finua diese nagamie feiñollena, nana comini uri illena, bie rafuena lloticai. Comena nagamie jeicia jira, bie rafuena lloticai. Nana cominimo bie rafue daje isoi duide.

Biena uiño: Ailluena comini, diga icaiño jiaie cominimona duere sefuilla jira, nana comini jaciruiñeno iacana jira, naga comini rana iacana jira, bie rafuena lloticai. Duere sefui raillano, nana comini nie isoide rafuena jaciruiñeno llollena, bie rafuena lloticai. Duere sefui raillano, nana comini nie isoide rafuena jaciruiñeno llollena, bie rafuena lloticai.

Biena uiño: Naga gobierno ie cominina canua, naimacimo bie isoide rafue illena. Gobierno diga, jobaime naimaci finoñellena, bie isoide rafue ie cominimo illena, naga gobierno ie cominina canua.

Biena uiño: Naga nairai jiaie nairai diga, nabairillana caijitailla jira, bie rafuena lloticai.

Biena uiño: Naga Naciones Unidamo duide nairai bie rafuedo jaiacana jira, bie rafuena lloticai. Nagamiecomena jeiciga. Iima riño baifemo faiñede. Riño iima baifemo faiñede. Comini duere itinona jitaiñedicai, iadedinaimaci uri caimare illana jitaidicai.

Biena uiño: -Danomo bie rafue llocana jaiticai - nana Naciones Unidamo duide nairai llotimaci.

Biena uiño: Bie rafuena nana comini raise atona uiñuana jitaidicai. Iena nana comini uiñuamona, bie rafue suicana jaite.

Danomo ofillanona bie rafuena lloticai

Nana comini bie rafue anamo jitaidicai. Naga nairai bie rafuena iiuana jitaidicai. Bie rafuena naimaci cominina llofuiana jitaidicai. Naga nairai bie rafue lloga uai finuana jitaidicai, nana naimaci comini bie rafuena ollena. Ie jira bie rafuena lloticai.

Rafue 1.

Nana cai comuillamona dama cai abido iticai. Cai comuillamona jiaimie anamo iñedicai. Nana daje facaiconi iticai. Abi uiñuanona comuidicai. Dani coninirie cai nabairilla.

Rafue 2.

Nana cominimo bie rafue duide. Naga nairaimo bie rafue duide: naga riñomo, naga iimamo, Jusiñamuina sedadimiemo, Jusiñamuina sedañedimiemo, jamai bue isoidimiemo, jamai bue isoiñedimiemo, dueredimiemo, ucuberedimiemo, riai uaina ñaitimiemo, jiaie uaina ñaitimiemo, diese itinomo bie rafue duide. Nie isoide gobierno anamo naimaci ia, bie rafue nana naimacimo duide.

Rafue 3.

Nana comini illana jitaidicai. Jiaie comini anamo bu jacaiñenia, jiaime anamo budi naimie anamo oreñena. Nana comini jiaie cominina jaciruiñenana jitaidicai.

Rafue 4.

Jiaie comemo maijillena jaca budi cominina ebe isoi fecañena. Iena caidica.

Rafue 5.

Cominina isi cacaitañena. Duere sefuiñellena, cominina janafefitañena.

Rafue 6.

Naga gobierno railla: -Nana cai eniruemo itinodi cominidimaci. Ie jira daje isoi nagamiiaina canoiticai -railla.

Rafue 7.

Nana comini gobierno lloga uai anamo daje isoi itimaci. Nana cominimo gobierno lloga uai daje isoi duide. Bie rafuedo jaiñedimiemona jaca buna duere sefuiñena.

Rafue 8.

Gobierno lloga uaido jaiñedimiemona bu duere sefuia, naiena raise siadollena, juez dine naimie jaillana buna rairuiñena.

Rafue 9.

Illaicominidi jamai ebena buna gaitañena. Calabozomo, cárcelmo jamai ebena buna uiñega. Ie nairaimotomona budi jamai ebena dotañega.

Rafue 10.

Bumo llogidua rafue ia, naie rafue duiñena juez dine naimiena uille, naie rafue raise siadollena. Bainino iene finoñena.

Rafue 11.

  1. Bumo llogidua rafue ia, naie rafuena nia siadoñenia, naimiena nia duere finoñena. Juez dine naie rafuena bainino siadoñena. Naimie dibeimo itinona naimiena riidollena rairuiñena.
  2. Navui ie finoca nia rairuiñega rafue facaina birui naimiena duere finoñena. Rairuica rafue bu finoia, ie finoca facaise duere sefuillacino baifemo naimie duere sefuiñena.

Rafue 12.

Nagamie jofomo uri illa. Ie illa comini diga icirafuena finoñena. Bu naimiena uri itatañenia, naimie jitaia, ie uri itatañedimiena naimie llogidoia, iena illaicomini rairuiñena. Bu naimie jeare ñaia, naimie jitaia, naimie jeare ñaitimiena naimie llogidoia, iena illaicomini rairuiñena.

Rafue 13.

  1. Ie nairaimo nine bu macariacania, illaicomini naimiena rairuiñena. Ie nairaimo nine ie jofo illana bu jitaia, illaicomini naimiena rairuiñena.
  2. Jiaie nairaimo bu macariacania, illaicomini naimiena rairuiñena. Abido ie nairaimo naimie biacania, illaicomini naimiena rairuiñena. Illaicomini naimiena caidiñena.

Rafue 14.

  1. Duere sefuillamona jiaie nairaimo nainomo duere sefuiñellena bu jaiacania, illaicomini naimiena rairuiñena.
  2. Maraiñedicino finoñenia, naimie jaillana illaicominidi rairuiñena.

Rafue 15.

  1. Naga gobierno railla: -Nana cai eniruemo itinodi cai comini. Cai nairaimo duudimaci -railla.
  2. Gobierno ie cominina oni dotañena, jiaie gobierno naimacina feiñoiacaiñenia. Cai nairaimo duiñedio -illaicomini buna iese lloñena. Jiaie nairai imiena bu jaiacania, illaicomini iena rairuiñena.

Rafue 16.

  1. Ie aina illena, nie eimie riñona oiacania, iena buna rairuiñena. Nie isoide riñona ollena buna rairuiñena. Ie ini illena, nie riño eiñaiño iimana oiacania, iena buna rairuiñena. Nie isoide iimana ollena buna rairuiñena. Ua mei, uruiaina iaimaiai comuitajana buna rairuiñena.
  2. Aina ollena, inina ollena, conimana jitaillanona iite.
  3. Naga iima ie ai diga ia, naga riño ie ini diga ia, ie nairai judaisiñeite, iadedi naga iima ie aiñede riño diga icabia, ie nairaidi judairite. Naimaci comini uri illena, naimaci nairaiai judaisiñellena, naga gobierno ie cominina canua.

Rafue 17.

  1. Eniruena bu namataacania, jofona bu namataacania, rana bu namataacania, illaicomini naimiena rairuiñena. Naga come iena namataacania, jiaie comini diga iena namataacania, illaicomini naimiena rairuiñena.
  2. Bumona ie eniruena, bumona ie jofona, bumona ie rana jamai ebena bairoñena.

Rafue 18.

Bue isoide ramo ie comecina facaia, buna naimiena rairuiñena. Jusiñamuina bu sedaacania, buna naimiena rairuiñena. Nie isoidimiena bu sedaacania, buna naimiena rairuiñena. Jiaie raiuedo bu jaiacania, buna naimie rairuiñena. Jiaie cominimo naimie iinuacino lluana buna rairuiñena. Ie joiomo iena lloia, jino iena lloia, naimiena buna rairuiñena.

Rafue 19.

Nie isoide ramo ie comeci facaia, naimiena buna rairuiñena. Naimie comeci facajacino muidona, naimie duere sefuiñena. Jiaie nairaimona bue isoide comecina facajacinona naimie feiñoiacania, jiaie nairaimo bue isoide comeci facajacinona naimie oretaiacania, iena illaicomini rairuiñena.

Rafue 20.

  1. Jamai nie isoide rafue finollena comini ofitaia, naimacina buna rairuiñena. Nie isoide rafuemo bu duicania, iena buna rairuiñena.
  2. Nie isoide rafuemo bu duiacaiñenia. Iemo naimie duiñena buna rairuiñena.

Rafue 21.

  1. Naimie jitaia, danomo ofillano, nagamie ie illaicomini nie isoi ie nairai sedajacinodi siadoga. Naimie atona siadoiacaiñenia, naimie facaina jiaimiedi iena siadolle. Ie illaicominir rafuena bu siadoiacania, naimiena buna rairuiñena.
  2. Illaicominina bu jaiacania, iena buna rairuiñena.
  3. Comini jitailla diese illaicominidi nana cominina sedaja. Dajerie illaicominina jaillena, comini dinena naimacina fetua. Nana comini uainino naimacina fetua. Naie illaicomini meidollirui jiai lloga.

Rafue 22.

Seguro social railla rafuemo nana comini jainaiaina. Naie rafuemona ie gobierno ucube illa diese nagamiefeiñua. Naimie buena jitai raillano, naimie comena jira, naimie uri illena, iese nagamie feiñua.

Rafue 23.

  1. Nie isoide rana bu maijiacania, naimiena buna rairuiñena. Mare ra illanomo naimie maijia.
  2. Maijille jaca illena, gobierno canua.
  3. Jiaimie iemaijiamona ibana feiñoia, naimie isoi bu maijiia, ie maijiamona ibana raise feiñua.
  4. Naimie comena jira, ie comini buena jitai raillano, ibana naimie raise feiñua. Raise feiñoñenia, gobierno naimiena canua.

Rafue 24.

Maijia fuilla mei, bu jafuier oiacania, naimiena buna rairuiñena: Cominina are maijitañena, iadedi naimcimaijiacana dinori maijia. Fiesta raillaruimo naimaci maijitañena, iadedi nairui facaina ibaca.

Rafue 25.

  1. Ie comini buena jitai raillano, ie maijimona nagamie ibana feiñua. Ie comini raise guillena, iniroi illena, jofo raise illena, remedio ollena, ie diese ibana feiñua. Bu maijinia, bu duia, bu feciñona ia, bu uaicimana jaia, ie ucube bumo iñenia, gobierno naimiena canua.
  2. Riño jocua facaise gobierno naiñaiñona canua. Gobierno naga uriaina daje isoi canua. Moorede uruena canua. Naiso moto oga urue daje isoi canua.

Rafue 26.

  1. Nana uruiat escuelamo jaillana buna rairuiñena. Nano jailla años facaina ibatañena. Escuelamo nana uruiatjailla. Primaria fuillanona jinie escuelamo bu jaiacania, iena illaicomini t rairuiñena. Rabena uiñotino diese nainomo feiñoga.
  2. Escuelamo naga rafuena raise finuana profesor llofuega. Naga urue comena jira, iese llofuega.
  3. Nana conina nabairillana llofuega.

Rafue 27.

  1. Nie isoide rafue ie nairai finoia, nagamie nainomo jaillana illaicomini rairuiñena. Naie rafue ite ie comecijaisillena jira, iena rairuiñena.
  2. Nie isoide rana bu cueia, naiemona dama naimie ibana feiñuana buna rairuiñena.

Rafue 28.

Bie rabemo cuega rafue suillena buna rairuiñena. Nana comini bie isoide suille rafue illanomo jainaiaina.

Rafue 29.

  1. Dani coniniri ie illanomo nagamie dajena maijia, nagamie comena jira.
  2. Ie gobierno lloga uai diese nagamie ie jitaillacinona finua. Jiaie cominino ie comecina facajano iena finua. Nana comini uri illana iena finua.
  3. Uri illena Naciones Unidas lloga uaina buna jeare uacaiñena.

Rafue 30.

Bie rafuedo jaiacadinona buna rairuiñena. Bie rafue uiñuamona, bie rabemo lloga rafuena buna jamaiñena.


 

 


 

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Albanian (shqip [ʃcip] or gjuha shqipe [ˈɟuha ˈʃcipɛ], meaning Albanian language) is an Indo-European language spoken by approximately 7.4 million people, primarily in AlbaniaKosovo, the Republic of Macedonia and Greece, but also in other areas of the Balkans in which there is an Albanian population, including Montenegro and Serbia (Presevo Valley). Centuries-old communities speaking Albanian-based dialects can be found scattered in Greece, southern Italy,[3] Sicily, and Ukraine. As a result of a modern diaspora, there are also Albanian speakers elsewhere in those countries and in other parts of the world, including ScandinaviaSwitzerlandGermanyAustria and HungaryUnited KingdomTurkeyAustraliaNew Zealand,NetherlandsSingaporeBrazilCanada, and the United States.

The earliest written document that mentions the Albanian language is a late-13th-century crime report from Dubrovnik. The first audio recording of the Albanian language was made by Norbert Jokl on 4 April 1914 in Vienna.

 

Official language in

 Albania


 Kosovo

Recognised minority language in

 Italy
 Macedonia
 Montenegro
 Bulgaria
 Romania
 Serbia
 Croatia
Regulated by

officially by the Social Sciences and Albanological Section of the Academy of Sciences of Albania

 

LINGUISTIC AFFINITIES

The Albanian language is an Indo-European language in a branch by itself, sharing its branch with no other extant language. (The other extant Indo-European languages in a branch by themselves are Armenian and, in some classifications, Greek.) Though sharing lexical isoglosses with Greek, Balto-Slavic, and Germanic, the vocabulary of Albanian is quite distinct. Once hastily grouped with Germanic and Balto-Slavic based on the merger of PIE *ǒ and *ǎ into *ǎ in a supposed "northern group",[8]Albanian has been proven to be distinct from these two because this vowel shift is only part of a larger push chain that affected all long vowels.[9] Albanian does share two features with Balto-Slavic languages: a lengthening of syllabic consonants before voiced obstruents and a distinct treatment of long syllables ending in a sonorant.[10] Conservative features of Albanian include the retention of the distinction between active and middle voice, present tense, and aorist.

Albanian is considered to have evolved from an ancient Paleo-Balkan language, usually taken to be either Illyrian or Thracian, but this is disputed. (See also Thraco-Illyrian and Messapian language.)

 

LINGUISTIC INFLUENCES

The earliest loanwords attested in Albanian are from Doric Greek (probably indirect),[11] whereas the strongest influence was fromLatin. The period during which Proto-Albanian and Latin interacted was protracted and drawn out roughly from the 2nd century BC to the 5th century AD.[12] This is borne out into roughly three layers of borrowings, the largest number belonging to the second layer. The first, with the fewest borrowings, was a time of less important interaction. The final period, probably preceding the Slavic or Germanic invasions, also has a notably smaller number of borrowings. Each layer is characterized by a different treatment of most vowels, the first layer having several that follow the evolution of Early Proto-Albanian into Albanian; later layers reflect vowel changes endemic to Late Latin and presumably Proto-Romance. Other formative changes include the syncretism of several noun case endings, especially in the plural, as well as a large scale palatalization.

A brief period followed, between the 7th and 9th centuries AD, that was marked by heavy borrowings from Southern Slavic, some of which predate the "o-a" shift common to the modern forms of this language group. Starting in the latter 9th century AD, there was a period characterized by protracted contact with the Proto-Romanians, or Vlachs, though lexical borrowing seems to have been mostly one sided—from Albanian into Romanian. Such borrowing indicates that the Romanians migrated from an area where the majority was Slavic (i.e. Middle Bulgarian) to an area with a majority of Albanian speakers (i.e. Dardania) where Vlachs are recorded in the 10th century AD. Their movement is probably related to the expansion of the Bulgarian Empire into Albania around that time. This fact places the Albanians in the western or central Balkans at a rather early date.

According to the central hypothesis of a project undertaken by the Austrian Science Fund FWF, Old Albanian had a significant influence on the development of many Balkan languages. Intensive research now aims to confirm this theory. Albanian is being researched using all available texts before a comparison with other Balkan languages is carried out. The outcome of this work will include the compilation of a lexicon providing an overview of all Old Albanian verbs.[13]

 

LATIN ELEMENT OF THE ALBANIAN LANGUAGE

Jernej Kopitar (1780–1844) was the first to note Latin's influence on Albanian and claimed "the Latin loanwords in the Albanian language had the pronunciation of the time of Emperor Augustus". Kopitar gave examples such as Albanian "qiqer" from Latincicer, "qytet" from civitas, "peshk" from piscis and "shigjetë" from sagitta. The hard pronunciations of Latin 〈c〉 and 〈g〉 are retained as palatal and velar stops in the Albanian loanwords. Gustav Meyer (1888) and Wilhelm Meyer-Lübke (1914) later corroborated this.

Eqrem Çabej also noticed, among other things, the archaic Latin elements in Albanian:

  1. Latin /au/ becomes Albanian /a/ in the earliest borrowings: aurum > "ar", gaudium > "gas", laurus > "lar". But Latin /au/ is retained in later borrowings: causa > "kafshë", laud > "lavd".

  2. Latin /ō/ becomes Albanian /e/ in the oldest Latin borrowings: pōmum > "pemë", hōra > "herë". An analogous mutation occurred from Proto-Indo-European to Albanian; PIE *nōs became Albanian "ne", PIE *oḱtō + suffix -ti- became Albanian "tetë" etc.

  3. Latin unstressed internal and initial syllables become lost in Albanian: cubitus > "kub", medicus > "mjek", paludem > V. Latinpadule > "pyll". An analogous mutation occurred from Proto-Indo-European to Albanian. In contrast, in later Latin borrowings, the internal syllable is retained: paganus > "pagan", plaga > "plagë" etc.

  4. Latin /tj/, /dj/, /kj/ palatalized to Albanian /s/, /z/, /c/: vitius > "ves", ratio > "arsye", radius > "rreze", facies > "faqe", socius > "shoq" etc.

Haralambie Mihăescu demonstrated that:

Other authors have detected Latin loanwords in Albanian with an ancient sound pattern from the 1st century BC, for example, Albanian qingëlë from Latin cingula and Albaniane vjetër from Latin vetus/veteris. The Romance languages inherited these words from Vulgar Latin: Vulgar *cingla became N. Romanian chinga, meaning "belly band, saddle girth", and Vulgar veteran became N. Romanian bătrân, meaning "old".

Albanian, Basque, and the surviving Celtic languages such as Irish are the non-Romance languages today that have this sort of extensive Latin element dating from ancient Roman times, which have undergone the sound changes associated with the languages. Other languages such as English only received their Latin and Romance vocabulary during medieval times and are therefore more obvious and closer to their original Latin spellings.

 

     
     
     

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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