International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights | International Covenant on Economic Social and Cultural Rights


















Hmong (Miao) Southern East-Guizhou  LANGUAGE

Usage By Country
China (southwestern) 7.5 millions; Vietnam nearly 500 000; Thailand over 100 000; USA nearly 100 000. 

Total Speakers 
Over 8 millions 
It belongs to the Miao-Yao family which sometimes is included in the Sino-Tibetan super family; its script comes from Miao and Latin. Hmong or Mong is the common name for a group of dialects of the West Hmongic (Chuanqiandian), it is spoken by the Hmong people of Sichuan, Yunnan, Guizhou, Guangxi, northern Vietnam, Thailand, and Laos. Some dialects are mutually intelligible while others are so distinct as to be considered separate languages. 
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Hmong (Miao) Southern East-Guizhou  Universal Declaration Of Human Rights


Hmong (Miao) Southern East-Guizhou UDHR

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights

Hmong (Miao) Southern East-Guizhou 

Source:  United Nations Development Programme, China 

<<ghad bob did doub nangd renl njanl xand yanl>>

kit doux nangd daot

Ad leb ghad bob did doub nend, leb leb seat mex zend yanl gaot nianb lib, zenx renb baob nend nis ad leb ghad bob did doub nend zib youl, zhenb yib gaot hol nbinl nangd jid cut.

Jex zenx renb gaot wud miel renl njanl nangd sib nis yex manl nangd, leb leb sat jid nkiand mex ad leb max raot nangd, yanb senb ghob nhangb senb ghob nhangb nangd ghad bob did doub.

Weib ghad mangs gangs doub nex nangd nex jex mex banb huat send hox chead mongl gaot zhenb fut jid beux jid dat, boub lies geud ful zhib lol baot hub renl njand.

Lies gangs ghad bob did doub nangd guel giad jid khaob jid raot.

Lianl hol guel dad ndub nangd yad yad nangd guel giad yit jind nib lianl hol guel xanb zhangd dad ndub jid pub guat jul,jid pud mix deib jid benx renl njanl, renl gel zend yanl, giab zid gaot ghaob mpad ghaob nit nangd nbinl denx njanl lib nangd xinb nianb, yeab jid pub mix lies jid zheax chud jid rut, gangs leb leb guat jid rut.

Lianl hol guel dab ndub nangd guel giad jid pud jul, mix lies nhangs lianl hol guel ad goud jid chud,gangs leb leb sat zend zhongb gaot zend xinl renl njanl nhangs zib youl.

Gangs leb leb sat jid nianl ad baob njanl lib gaot zib youl nend, nis gangs leut gheul pud guat nangd dut jid pud deub lies jid chud.

Nangd nangd,ad roul nend,

Dad huib,

Jid jiangt ad leb sib gieb renl njanl xand yanl nend, geud gangs yad yad nangd guel giad gaot leb leb nex geud jid chud piaod zhenx. Gangs mix hneb hneb jid pud jid ngheub, jid zheax jid sheab, nex chead zend zhongb njanl lib gaot zib youl. Tongd guob guel giad nhangs guel jib nangd cuob sid, gangs ad baob njant lib gaot zib youl nend, nib yad yad nangd guel giad nangd renl minl dad ndub,leb leb seat chenl renb gaot zend xinl.

did ad qaox

Leb leb nis zib youl nangs, mex ad sheit nangd zend yanl nhangs njanl lib. Mix mex lix xinb gaot liangt send, leb leb lies nhangs ghob nab ghob geud nangd.

did oub qaox

Leb leb sat mex ad leb xand yanl nend jid pud nangd yad yad nangd njanl lib gaot zib youl,jex guant nis ghob nhangb zongx cul, ghob deud nis ghob nhangb sex daob, nis ghob mpad ghob nit, pud ghob nhangb nangd dut, senb ghob nhangb ghunb, mex ghob nhangb nangd zhenb zib gaot guand dianx. nis ghob nhangb nangd guel giad nangd nex, nis ghob nhangb chul shend, nis liot nis kod, nib did dob bix nangd, yad yad sat jex mex qid biel.

Jex gangs yind weib ad lel nex nis nangd guel giad gaot lins toux nangd zhenb zib, xind zhenb gaot guel jil nangd dib weib jex jid ndongt deut mex ghob nhangb qid biel. Jex guant lins toux nis doul lil nangd, nex heut jid guant nangd, jex zib zhib nangd heab deit nis qil tad nangd qinl kuangb.

dib bub qaox

Leb leb mex njanl lib mex shend minb, zib youl gaot renl shend ngand njanl.

dib bleib qaox

Jex gangs geud jid leb chud noul lil, jex gangs mex jid guant nis ghob nhangb nangd noul lil zhib doub, jex gangs nious gaot mes noul lil.

did blab qaox

Jex gangs yongb kub xinl, yongb jid nanx neas nangd gaot jex mex renl daob nangd, wud roul nangd deb yub gaot xinl fal.

did zhaut qaox

Jex guant nib did dob, leb leb mex njanl lib gangs nex chenl renb wud nib fal lil geud neul nangd renl gail.

did jongs qaox

Nib fal lil geud neul leb leb nis ad sheit nangd, mex njanl lib jid daot fal lil nangd pinx dent paot hub, jex zhaos nex end jex niangs. Leb leb mex njanl lib jid daot pinx dent paot hub, ghad mangs zhaos ad gaod end jid daot niangs nex nangd nex nangd jid heab.

did yil qaox

Ad leb nex, xanb fal gaot fal lil gangs wud nangd jid benx. njanl lib zhaos nex qinb heib nangd ghox ngangx, mex njanl lib gangs hol gel nangd guel. giad fal tinl deib ad baob had loub nend chud mex xaob guox nangd but gioub.

did jox qaox

Jex guant nis jid leb sat jex gangs chud ad baob jid noul, jid keb gaot jid choud nex jid sheb nangd sib.

did gul qaox

Leb leb ad sheib nangd mex njanl lib gangs ad leb doul lil nangd, jex mex piand send nangd fal tinl chud max danx nangd gaot gongd kaid nangd xent xunb, lol jid danb wud nangd njanl lib nhangs nib wub, jid danb wud pud nangd yad yad nangd xinl sib zhit kongb.

did gul ad qaox

  1. (ad), Zhaos xinl sib zhit kongb nangd nex, jid xiangd jid danb wud mex zeib nangd ghob ngangx, wud nis jex nex zeib nangd..
  2. (oub), Ad leb nex chud ghob nbangb jex chud ghob nhangb, nganb guel giad nangd gaot guel jil nangd fal lil sat jex mex dianx zeib nangd ghob ngangx, jex gangs jid danb wud nis mex zeib nangd. Xinl fal jex gangs bit fal lil jid sheit nangd ghad hend.

did gul oub qaox

Leb leb nangd sid shend hol, jib bloud gaot tongd senb, jex gangs zhaos ghob nhangb gand sheb,wud nangd rongl yil gaot minl yil jex gangs zhaos gongd jil. Leb leb mex njanl lib jid daot fal lil nangd paot hub, lol jex zhaos ad baob sib qinx nend.

dib gul bub qaox

  1. (ad), Leb leb nib wud nangd guel giad goud nhangs mex njanl lib jid youx wud yanb nib did jongt.
  2. (oub), Leb leb mex njanl lib jid sheub blongl wud nangd guel giad, wud yab mex njanl lib jid nzhangd lol.

did gul bleib qaox

  1. (ad), Leb leb mex njanl lib nib nex nangd guel giad jid chat paot hub ghad mangs zhaos jid heab.
  2. (oub), Jex mex nis zhenb zhib nangd zeib,gaot weib beib jul lianl hol guel nangd zongd zid nhangs yanl zel nangd had loul, jex gangs yongb ad zhongx njanl lib nend.

did gul blab qaox

  1. (ad), Leb leb mex njanl lib mex guel jil.
  2. (oub) , Jex gangs jid tout nex nangd guel jil, jex gangs jid kat nex jid lieas guel jil nangd njanl lib.

dib gul zhaot qaox

  1. (ad), Deb mpad deb nit liox jul, jex guant nis ghob nhangb zongx cul, guel jil gaot jid senb ghob nhangbghunb,wud deit mex njanl lib jid janx bod oud lanl. Jex guant nis dangl qub nhangs lib fend, wud deit mex ad sheit nangd njanl lib.
  2. (oub), Dangl qub lies ghob mpad ghob nit oub leb yad yad ndongx yil.
  3. (bub), Jid bloud nis shend chenx nangd gaot jid benx nangd sheb huib dand yanl,lies mex sheb huib gaot guel gial nangd paot hub.

did gul jongs qaox

  1. (ad), Leb leb mex njanl lib mex bad dud nangd mis gul mis gians gaot nhangs nex ad goud nangd mis gul mis gians.
  2. (oub), Jex gangs jid ghueut nex nangd mis gul mis gians.

did gul yil qaox

Leb leb mex jid nbanx, jid khub gaot jid senb ghunb nangd njanl lib, wud jid lieas wud nangd ghunb seat chud dut.Wud mex leb dud, dab xib , gongd kaid nangd gaot jex gangs nex jid nianl nangd biaox shib wud nangd zongd giob nangd zib youl.

did gul jox qaox

Leb leb mex pud dut nangd zib youl, ad zhongd njanl lib nend baod guad mex bad dud nangd zhux zhangd yab jex zhaos jid cot nangd zib youl, yab baod guad zhad mil shib mil yangb nangd meil geib jid chat gaot giel shaob xaod xid nhangs sid xiangt nangd zib youl.

dib oub gul qaox

  1. (ad), Leb leb mex zib youl nhangs nex jid zeix gaot giel sheb.
  2. (oub), Jex gangs jid nanx nex cand giad tanl tix.

dib oub gul ad qaox

  1. (ad), Leb leb mex njanl lib jid dant mongl gaot gangs nex qit wud mongl zhib lix bad dud nangd guel giad.
  2. (oub), Leb leb mex njanl lib ad sheit nangd cand giad bad dud guel giad nangd gongd wub.
  3. (bub), Renl minl nangd yib zhib nis zhenb hut njanl lib nangd ghob jongx bid gaod, ad baob yib zhib nend lies zhad xanx jux lol biaox xanb, leb leb lies mex ad sheit nangd toul piaob nangd njanl lib, toul piaob lies ghad mangs nib leut geul sheit nhut.

dib oub gul oub qaox

Leb leb mex njanl lib jid daot sheb huib nangd jid heut, mex njanl lib jid daot wud fal zanx wud bad dud nangd zend yanl gaot renl gail nangd ghob ngangx lies nangd jind jid, sheb huib gaot wenl huab nangd njanl lib.

dib oub gul bub qaox

  1. (ad) , Leb leb mex njanl lib chud dongb, jid xant goud dongb , jid daot gongd zhenb gaot hox shib nangd goud dongb nangd qaox njanb lies mex jex zhad goud dongb nangd baot zhangb.
  2. (oub), Chud ad sheit nangd goud dongb, lies mex ad sheit hliob nangd jid dangt.
  3. (bub), Chud dongb nangd nex, lies daot hox shib nangd jid dangt, lies gangs wud bad dud nhangs wud jib bloud nangd nex mex max raot nangd qaox njanb.
  4. (blieb), Jid weib bad dud nangd lib yib, leb leb mex njanl lib jid zeud gaot cand giad gongd huib.

did oub gul bleib qaox

Leb leb mex njanl lib Jid xaot, chud dongb nangd ghob ngangx, lies mex gangs jib dangt nangd giat qid.

dib oub gul blab qaox

  1. (ad), Leb leb mex njanl lib daot weib wud bad dud gaot wud jib bloud nangd nex nangd shend hol sheix zhent, ad baob nend baod gual mex max nongx , max hnend, bloud, ngab, gaot sheb huib ful.wub. Jex mex goud dongb jul, daot mongb jul, chud jex daot goud dongb jul, daot mongb jul, das bod jul, ghot jul, deit lies mex njanl lib daot paot zhangb.
  2. (oub), Ned nhangs deb mex njanl lib jid daot ghad ceat nangd zhaob gub. yad yab nangd deb deb, jex guant nis janx bloud goud zheit bix nangd heab deit nis janx bloud goud neul bix nangd,deit lies jid daot ad sheit nangd sheib huib paot hub.

dib oub gul zhaot qaox

  1. (ad) , Leb leb lies mex zhaos jid sheab nangd njanl lib, ngoub ndeud lies jex xoud jid dangt, zhib shaot nib cud jil nangd ghob ngangx lies nangd nangd chud. Jib shub nhangs zil niel nangd jaob youl lies jid liob, gaod denx jaob youl lies jid nkhed chenl jil deib leb leb ad sheit nangd ked fangb.
  2. (oub), Jaob youl nis jid weib fal zhanx nex nangd gaob xinb, end jid niangs renl njanl nhangs zib youl. Jaob youl lies jid gangs leb leb guel giad, minl cul gaot jex jid ndongx ghunb nangd nex lol jid nianl , jid rut, jid heut lianl hol guel chud rut goud dongb.
  3. (bub) , Ned mat deib deb deb nangd jaob youl nangd zhongt leib, mex ghaox doub jid sant nangd njanl lib.

dib oub gul jongs qaox

  1. (ad), Leb leb mex njanl lib cand giad shed huib nangd wenl huab send hox, jid daot kod xol nhangs wud canx send nangd hot chub.
  2. (oub), Ad leb nex wud chud nangd kod xol, wenl xol nhangs meis shub cant send nangd jind senx nangd nhangs wul zil nangd lib yib, mex njanl lib jid daot baot hub.

dib oub gul yil qaox

Leb leb mex njanl lib lies ad zhongx sheib huib nangd gaot guel jil nangd zhib xub, mex ad zhongx zhib xub nend, ad leb xand yanl nend jid pud nangd njanl lib gaot zib youl del jid daot jul.

dib oub gul jox qaox

  1. (ad), Leb leb lies jid heut sheb huib chud geud dongb, neax nis nib sheib huib dad nzhongb wud nangd gaob xinb chead kox nenb zib youl fal canx.
  2. (oub) , Ad leb nex nib xinl six wud nangd njanl lib nbangs zib youl nangd ghob ngangx, mex fal lil lol xanb zib wud, ad zhongx xanb zib nend nis jid weib goud neul goud zheit nangd nex nangd njanl lib nhangs zib youl, yeab nis nib ad leb minl zhut nangd sheb huib dad nzhongb nangd xid yaob.
  3. (hub), Nib jid chud ad baob njanl lib nhangs zib youl nend, jex guant mex ghob nhangb qenx kuangb, seat jex gangs weix beib lanl hol guel nangd zongd zix nhangs yanl zel.

did bub gul qaox

Ad leb xand yanl nend nangd yad yad nangd qaox wenl, jex gangs jid pud nis gangs ad leb guel giad did, ad leb jil tanl did gaot ad leb nex did mex njanl lib jid chud ad boab hol dongb, lol jid bab ad leb xand yanl nend jid pud nangd njanl lib nhangs zib youl nangd.


























Albanian (shqip [ʃcip] or gjuha shqipe [ˈɟuha ˈʃcipɛ], meaning Albanian language) is an Indo-European language spoken by approximately 7.4 million people, primarily in AlbaniaKosovo, the Republic of Macedonia and Greece, but also in other areas of the Balkans in which there is an Albanian population, including Montenegro and Serbia (Presevo Valley). Centuries-old communities speaking Albanian-based dialects can be found scattered in Greece, southern Italy,[3] Sicily, and Ukraine. As a result of a modern diaspora, there are also Albanian speakers elsewhere in those countries and in other parts of the world, including ScandinaviaSwitzerlandGermanyAustria and HungaryUnited KingdomTurkeyAustraliaNew Zealand,NetherlandsSingaporeBrazilCanada, and the United States.

The earliest written document that mentions the Albanian language is a late-13th-century crime report from Dubrovnik. The first audio recording of the Albanian language was made by Norbert Jokl on 4 April 1914 in Vienna.


Official language in



Recognised minority language in

Regulated by

officially by the Social Sciences and Albanological Section of the Academy of Sciences of Albania



The Albanian language is an Indo-European language in a branch by itself, sharing its branch with no other extant language. (The other extant Indo-European languages in a branch by themselves are Armenian and, in some classifications, Greek.) Though sharing lexical isoglosses with Greek, Balto-Slavic, and Germanic, the vocabulary of Albanian is quite distinct. Once hastily grouped with Germanic and Balto-Slavic based on the merger of PIE *ǒ and *ǎ into *ǎ in a supposed "northern group",[8]Albanian has been proven to be distinct from these two because this vowel shift is only part of a larger push chain that affected all long vowels.[9] Albanian does share two features with Balto-Slavic languages: a lengthening of syllabic consonants before voiced obstruents and a distinct treatment of long syllables ending in a sonorant.[10] Conservative features of Albanian include the retention of the distinction between active and middle voice, present tense, and aorist.

Albanian is considered to have evolved from an ancient Paleo-Balkan language, usually taken to be either Illyrian or Thracian, but this is disputed. (See also Thraco-Illyrian and Messapian language.)



The earliest loanwords attested in Albanian are from Doric Greek (probably indirect),[11] whereas the strongest influence was fromLatin. The period during which Proto-Albanian and Latin interacted was protracted and drawn out roughly from the 2nd century BC to the 5th century AD.[12] This is borne out into roughly three layers of borrowings, the largest number belonging to the second layer. The first, with the fewest borrowings, was a time of less important interaction. The final period, probably preceding the Slavic or Germanic invasions, also has a notably smaller number of borrowings. Each layer is characterized by a different treatment of most vowels, the first layer having several that follow the evolution of Early Proto-Albanian into Albanian; later layers reflect vowel changes endemic to Late Latin and presumably Proto-Romance. Other formative changes include the syncretism of several noun case endings, especially in the plural, as well as a large scale palatalization.

A brief period followed, between the 7th and 9th centuries AD, that was marked by heavy borrowings from Southern Slavic, some of which predate the "o-a" shift common to the modern forms of this language group. Starting in the latter 9th century AD, there was a period characterized by protracted contact with the Proto-Romanians, or Vlachs, though lexical borrowing seems to have been mostly one sided—from Albanian into Romanian. Such borrowing indicates that the Romanians migrated from an area where the majority was Slavic (i.e. Middle Bulgarian) to an area with a majority of Albanian speakers (i.e. Dardania) where Vlachs are recorded in the 10th century AD. Their movement is probably related to the expansion of the Bulgarian Empire into Albania around that time. This fact places the Albanians in the western or central Balkans at a rather early date.

According to the central hypothesis of a project undertaken by the Austrian Science Fund FWF, Old Albanian had a significant influence on the development of many Balkan languages. Intensive research now aims to confirm this theory. Albanian is being researched using all available texts before a comparison with other Balkan languages is carried out. The outcome of this work will include the compilation of a lexicon providing an overview of all Old Albanian verbs.[13]



Jernej Kopitar (1780–1844) was the first to note Latin's influence on Albanian and claimed "the Latin loanwords in the Albanian language had the pronunciation of the time of Emperor Augustus". Kopitar gave examples such as Albanian "qiqer" from Latincicer, "qytet" from civitas, "peshk" from piscis and "shigjetë" from sagitta. The hard pronunciations of Latin 〈c〉 and 〈g〉 are retained as palatal and velar stops in the Albanian loanwords. Gustav Meyer (1888) and Wilhelm Meyer-Lübke (1914) later corroborated this.

Eqrem Çabej also noticed, among other things, the archaic Latin elements in Albanian:

  1. Latin /au/ becomes Albanian /a/ in the earliest borrowings: aurum > "ar", gaudium > "gas", laurus > "lar". But Latin /au/ is retained in later borrowings: causa > "kafshë", laud > "lavd".

  2. Latin /ō/ becomes Albanian /e/ in the oldest Latin borrowings: pōmum > "pemë", hōra > "herë". An analogous mutation occurred from Proto-Indo-European to Albanian; PIE *nōs became Albanian "ne", PIE *oḱtō + suffix -ti- became Albanian "tetë" etc.

  3. Latin unstressed internal and initial syllables become lost in Albanian: cubitus > "kub", medicus > "mjek", paludem > V. Latinpadule > "pyll". An analogous mutation occurred from Proto-Indo-European to Albanian. In contrast, in later Latin borrowings, the internal syllable is retained: paganus > "pagan", plaga > "plagë" etc.

  4. Latin /tj/, /dj/, /kj/ palatalized to Albanian /s/, /z/, /c/: vitius > "ves", ratio > "arsye", radius > "rreze", facies > "faqe", socius > "shoq" etc.

Haralambie Mihăescu demonstrated that:

Other authors have detected Latin loanwords in Albanian with an ancient sound pattern from the 1st century BC, for example, Albanian qingëlë from Latin cingula and Albaniane vjetër from Latin vetus/veteris. The Romance languages inherited these words from Vulgar Latin: Vulgar *cingla became N. Romanian chinga, meaning "belly band, saddle girth", and Vulgar veteran became N. Romanian bătrân, meaning "old".

Albanian, Basque, and the surviving Celtic languages such as Irish are the non-Romance languages today that have this sort of extensive Latin element dating from ancient Roman times, which have undergone the sound changes associated with the languages. Other languages such as English only received their Latin and Romance vocabulary during medieval times and are therefore more obvious and closer to their original Latin spellings.