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Official Language: Iceland 

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282,845 (2001) 

Icelandic is spoken by the 250,000 inhabitants of Iceland. It is one of the Scandinavian languages, which form a branch of the Germanic languages, in turn a part of the Indo-European family. Icelandic, like Faroese, is remarkably similar to Old Norse, the language of the Vikings, which was brought to Iceland from Norway in the 9th century. While the other Scandinavian languages have been strongly influenced by those of neighboring countries, Icelandic, insular and isolated, has retained its pristine character over the centuries. As a result Icelandic schoolchildren today have no difficulty reading the "Eddas" and the "Sagas", the great epics written in Old Norse. Their language is a sort of parent tongue to the other modern Scandinavian languages. It also has many features in common with Old English, the result of the Viking invasions of Britain in the 9th century. Unlike the other Nordic countries there are no dialects to speak of. Another factor behind the purity of Icelandic is the absence of international words for modern ideas and inventions. Icelanders avoid such words wherever possible, preferring to coin their own purely Icelandic words instead. Thus "telephone", for example, in Icelandic is "simi", an old Icelandic word for "thread" or "wire". Icelandic's links with Old English are also reflected in the alphabet, which contains the old runic letters - (eth), the voiced th, and the "t" (thorn), the unvoiced. It also contains the "æ" of Danish and Norwegian. The English word "geyser" and "eider" are of Icelandic origin.
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ICELANDIC ( Íslenska ) LANGUAGE  Universal Declaration Of Human Rights



The Universal Declaration of Human Rights

Edisuan Etop Mbana Mme Unen Owo Ke Ofuri Ekondo

Translated into Efik-Ibibio by Eno Blankson Ikpe

Ufokutom Emi Esede Mkpo Abana Usuanetop

Mboho Edidiana Kiet Ofuri Ekondo

Ebe Iso Iko

Ke usen ofion duop ke ofion duopeba, 1948, Mboho Edidiana Kiet Ofuri Ekondo ema enyime enyun enam ediono ebana ke ofuri ekondo Edisuan Etop Mbana Mme Unen Owo Ke Ofuri Ekondo. Kpupuru se ekebierede oro esine mi ke esit nwed emi. Oto ke akwa edinam emi, Akwa Ufok Mbet Mboho emi ema esian kpukpuru mme idut emi edude ke Mboho emi ete eno ntot ebana Edisuan Etop Mbana Mme Unen Owo emi "enyun ese ete ke esuan etop emi, emen ewut, ekot ke nwed, enyun enam awana kpukpuru owo akpanakpan ke mme ufok nwed, ye mme itie ukpep nkpo eken; enyun ekpeme ete ukpuhore ndomokiet iduhe otode ke edu mme idaha ukara mme idut ye mme ebiet eken".

Kofi Annan


Kpukpuru owo emana ye ukemukem ye asana asana unen ye ndamana uboho-ufin.

Mboho Edidiana Kiet Ofuri Ekondo enehede ebiere ndimum nkama, ndisuan etop mbana, nyun mkpeme mme ndamana unen kpukpuru owo. Ediyime ndinam utom emi oto ke mbet emi Mbobo Edidiana Kiet Ofuri Ekondo ekebierede emi eneherede osonode mbuotidem kpukpuru owo ke ofuri ekondo abana mme ndamana unen owo ye uku mmo ye se owo odotde.

Ke nwed Edisuan Etop Mbana Mme Unen Owo Ke Ekondo, Mboho Edidiana Kiet Ofuri Ekondo enam anwana ke mem mem usun, mme unen emi enyenede kpukpuru owo ukem ukem.

Mme unen emi enyene mbufo

Mmo edi unen mbufo

Mbufo emehe ye mme mbet ye mme unen emi enyun enwam ndisuan etop emi, nyun mkpeme mmo no idem mbufo kpa ye mmo eken nte mbufo.

Ntono Ibuot Iko

Koro ndidiono ndamana uku ye mme ukem ukem ye asana asana unen emi enyenede ubon owo edi ntono uboho-ufin, unen, ye emem ke ekondo,

Koro unana ndikpeme kpa ye ndibat mme unen owo ke ikpuikpu ada obom ye ibak ibak edu uwem edi, emi etimerede esit owo; koro editono obufa uwem ke ekondo emi mme owo ekopde inem uwem, enyene unen nditin se mmo emade, nnim se mmo emade ke akpaniko, nyun nworo ke ufin ndik ye unana edi ata akpan nkpo emi owo ekededi oyomde,

Koro edi ata akpan nkpo ndida mme mbet ukara mkpeme mme ndamana unen owo, minaha owo ada awan, nte nkukure usun, ndiboho ufik ye ndiworo ufin idok ukara.

Koro edi ata akpan nkpo ndinam man ima okori ke ebuana otu mme idut nte ima ke otu mme ufan,

Koro mme idut emi edude ke idak Mboho Edidiana Kiet Ofuri Ekondo enehede esono mbuotidem mmo ke mme ndamana unen owo, ke uku, ye ke se owo odotde, ye ke iban ye iren ndinyene ukem ukem unen; enyun ebiere ndinam nti nkpo uwem etot enyun ewak, ndiyun nam idaha uwem mme owo ofon nte onode akwa uboho-ufin.

Koro mme idut emi edude ke idak Mboho Edidiana Kiet enwono ndibere ye Mboho Edidiana Kiet Ofuri Ekondo ndise nte ke ekpono enyu ekpeme mme unen mme owo ye ndamana uboho-ufin ke ofuri ekondo,

Koro kpupuru owo ndidiono mme unen ye mme usuñ uboho-ufin edi ata akpan nkpo ndida nam enwono emi oworo usun,

Ndien, Ke Ntem

Akwa Ufok Mbet Mboho

anam ediono ebana

Edisuan Etop Mbana Mme Unen Owo Ke Ofuri Ekondo

nte ndinam kpukpuru owo ye mme idut enyene ukem ukem idaha nkori, man oto do owo kiet kiet ye mme nka ke obio, ke mmo etide mme mbet emi edude ke nwed Edisuan Etop emi, eyedomo kpukpuru ini, ndikpep nyun nam anwana, ndisuan etop mbana ediyene ukpono no mme unen mmo owo ye mme usuñ uboho-ufin emi; ndien ke ndika iso ke idaha ke idaha, ke mme idut ye ke ofuri ekondo man enam ofuri ekondo ediono enyun enam mme mbet emi ke otu mme idut emi edude ke idak Mboho Edidiana Kiet Ofuri Ekondo kpa ye ke otu mme idut efen emi edude ke idak mmo.

Ibuot Iko Mbet 1

Kpukpuru owo emana nte amanison, enyun enyene ukem ukem uku ye unen. Eyoho mmo ye ukeme ndikere nkpo, ndinyun nyene esit, ke ntre, mmo enyene ndiman nkpo mbana kiet eken ke esit ndito eka.

Ibot Iko Mbet 2

Owo kiet kiet enyene ebuana ke kpukpuru mme unen ye mme usun uboho-ufin emi odude ke nwed Edisuan Etop Mbana Mme Unen emi; ubahade otode ke oruk usun kiet ekededi iduhe; otode ke oruk, ikpok-idem, mme owo edi nwan mme eren, ke usem, edu ukpono Abasi, ukara, mme nkpo ndomokiet efen otode ke idut, mme obio , mme se owo eyenede, mme emana, mme idaha esie ke obio.

Nko owo inyeneke ndinam ubahade nto ke ntak mme edinam ukara, mme ke idak mbet, mme ke idaha idut emi owo otode ke otu me idut ke ofuri ekondo; mme idut oro enyene ukaraidem, mme ekara mmo ke ubion eno Mboho Ediniana Kiet, mme mmo inyeneke ukaraidem, mme mmo edu ke idak odudu efen emi minoho mmo ukaraidem.

Ibuot Iko Mbet 3

Owo kiet kiet enyene unen ndidu uwem, ndiyene uboho ye ukpeme.

Ibuot Iko Mbet 4

Owo ndomokiet ididihe ofin, idinyun iduhe ke idak ufin; Ekpan owo ndinyene ifin ndiyun nyam ifin ke usun kiet ekededi.

Ibuot Iko Mbet 5

Owo inyeneke ndisin owo ndomokiet ke idak ndutuho ye ibak. Nko owo inyeneke ndino owo ufen emi midotke ndino owo, mme ufen emi edide nkpo but ye esuene.

Ibuot Iko Mbet 6

Kpupuru owo enyene unen ndiworo nda ke ebiet kiet ekededi nte owo emi enyende unen ke iso mbet.

Ibuot Iko Mbet 7

Kpukpuru owo, owo isoho owo eto, edi ukem ukem ke iso mbet enyung eyene unen ndibo ukem ukpeme otode ke mbet. Kpupuru owo enyene unen ndibo ukpeme, edieke owo esinde asari emi ekemede ndibiat mme mbet emi edude ke nwed Edisuan Etop Mbana Mme Unen Mme Owo emi, mme ndinam nkpo emi ekemeke ndida oruk asari oro ndi.

Ibuot Iko Mbet 8

Kpukpuru owo enyene unen ndiyom ukpan mme unen nto mme esop ndunhode emi edude ndise mbana mme edinam emi ekemede ndibiat mme ndamana unen emi enode owo otode ke akwa nwed mbet, ye mme mbet eken.

Ibuot Iko Mbet 9

Owo inyenke unen ndimum owo ndomokiet ke ini akpan ntak miduhe, mme ndikobi, mme ndibin owo nsio ke obio esie.

Ibuot Iko Mbet 10

Kpukpuru owo enyene unen ndida ke iso ikpe nyung ntin iko idem mmo anwa anwa ke iso asana asana esop ubiereikpe emi minamke asari, ke ndiyom mme unen ye mme isoutom mmo, ye ndiyom unen mbana mme idiok ikpe ekededi emi owo enyende.

Ibuot Iko Mbet 11

  1. Owo ekededi emi enyenede ikpe emi asnanade ye ufen isop enyene unen ndida nte anana ndudue ke iso ikpe tutu ekpe ikpe esie etiene mbet ke esop emi enye enyenede kpukpuru ubion ye ifet emi enye ekemede ndida nkan nyung nwam idem esie.
  2. Ikpe emi asanade ye ufen isop idisopke owo ndomokiet ito ke ntak mbet emi mikidihe mbet ufen isop ke idak mbet idut mme ke mbet ofuri ekondo ke ini oro owo akanamde idiok nkpo. Owo inyeneke unen ndino owo ufen emi okponde akan ufen emi ekesinode owo ke ukem ini oro ekebiatde mbet ufen isop.

Ibuot Iko Mbet 12

Owo inyeneke unen ndidunhore ndibe uwem owo, ye eke ubon esie, ye eke ufok esie, mme mme nwed esie, mme ndisuene eti enyin mme uku, mme uko esie. Kpukpuru owo enyene unen ndibo ukpeme nto mbet emi akpande uto isinenyin ye anwan oro.

Ibuot Iko Mbet 13

  1. Kpupuru owo enye unen ndika ebiet eke mmo emade ndiyung ndun ke ebiet eke mmo emade ke essien idut mmo.
  2. Owo kiet ekededi enyene unen ndikpon idut ekededi kpa ye idut esie onyun enyene unen difiak nyon idut esie.

Ibuot Iko Mbet 14

  1. Owo ekededi enye unen ndiyom nyun mbo unen ndidun ke mme ebiet uboho ke esen idut man enye oboho ndutuho.
  2. Unen emi ikemke owo emi enyenede mfina onyun obode ndutuho otode ke nkpo emi miyeneke ebuana ye nka mbre ukara; otode ke idiok edinam esie mme edinam efen emi ekemede ndibiat mme utom ye mme nti usun uwem emi Mboho Edidiana Kiet Ofuri Ekondo onode.

Ibuot Iko Mbet 15

  1. Owo ekededi enyene unen ndinyene ison emana.
  2. Owo ndomokiet inyeneke odudu nibo owo unen enye ndiyene ison emana mme enye ndikpuho ison emana esie.

Ibuot Iko Mbet 16

  1. Iban ye irenowo emi ekemde isua enyene unen ndinam ndo nyun nsiak ubon; oruk, idut, mme edu ukpono Abasi inyeneke unen ndibiono mmo. Mmo enyene ukem ukem unen ke kpukpuru ndutim ndo, ke ini ndo enemde, kpa ntre nko ke ini ndo abiarade.
  2. Nkukure ini emi edidiande ndo edi ke ini anwan ndo ye ebe ndo enode oyoho ediyime mmo.
  3. Ubon owo oto ke Abasi; enye onyun edi akpan akpan mboho ke obio, anam mmo enyene unen ndibo ukpeme nto ukara obio kpa ye ukara essien idut mmo.

Ibuot Iko Mbet 17

  1. Owo kiet ekededi enyene unen ndinyene nkpo ke idem esie ikpon-ikpon, mme ndibuana nkpo nyene ye mme mbon efen.
  2. Owo ndomokiet inyeneke baba unen ndibo owo inyene esie ke nkan-ubok ke ntak miduhe.

Ibuot Iko Mbet 18

Kpukpuru owo enyene unen ndikere se mmo emade, nyun nyene esit nte ofonde mmo, nyun nkpono Abasi mmo nte mmo emade. Mme nkpo efen emi edude ke mbet emi edi: ukeme ndikpuho edu ukpono Abasi ye se owo onimde ke akpaniko, ye unen uboho-ufin edide ke idem esie ikpon mme nte kiet ke otu owo ke obio; ke anwa-anwa, mme ke ndibe, owo enyene unen ndiyarede edu ukpono Abasi esie mme se enye onimde ke akpaniko ke ndikpep, ndisin ke edinam, ndikpono Abasi ye ndidu uwem nte edu ukpono mmo ekpepde.

Ibuot Iko Mbet 19

Owo ekededi enyene unen ndikere nyun ntin se enye amade. Unen emi ono enye odudu ndiyene ekikere esit esie; nkpo ndomokiet, mme adana ndomokiet, inyeneke ndibiono enye ke ini enye oyomde, obode, onyun asuande etop mme ekikere esit esie ke oruk usun usuan etop ekededi.

Ibuot Iko Mbet 20

  1. Owo ekededi enyene unen ndiduk nka ye esop ekekedi emi enye amade, emi onyun asanade ye emem.
  2. Owo ndomokiet inyeneke ndinyik owo man enye oduk nka ke ini enye mihaha ndiduk nka oro .

Ibuot Iko Mbet 21

  1. Owo ekededi enyene unen nditiene mbuana ke ukara idut esie edide ke idem esie onyun edide ke ndimek mbon efen emi enye amade nsin ke ukara.
  2. Owo ekededi enyene unen ndibuana ukem ukem ke mme ufon ye udori nti nkpo emi odude ke idut esie.
  3. Se mme owo emade enyun eyomde edidi se edidade ibop odudu ukara; eyenam efiok se mme owo emade enyu eyomde emi kini-kini, akpanakpan ke ata ini umekowo emi enimde eno kpukpuru owo emi ekemde isua umek owo; ndien umek owo emi edidi ke ndibe mme ke usun efen emi edidide ukem nte ndimek owo ke usun emi ubiono ndomokiet miduhe.

Ibuot Iko Mbet 22

Owo ekededi, nte kiet ke otu ke obio, enyene unen ndibo nti nkpo uwem nto ukara onyun enyene unen ndikori ke ukeme esie oto ke nti edinam uforo emi ukara idut esie enamde ye unwam emi mme esen idut ke ofuri ekondo enodo, nte asanade ke usun edinam nkpo ye mme inyene emi essien idut kiet kiet eyenede, otode ke mbubehe uforo, ke unen idaha uwem ke obio ye ke unen edu uwem amanison emi edide akpan nkpo emi ekemede ndino owo uku nyun nam enye okori ke uko esie ubiono ndomokiet iduhe.

Ibuot Iko Mbet 23

  1. Kpukpuru owo enyene unen ndinam utom; ndinam oruk utom kiet ekededi emi mmo emade, ndinam utom ke idak nti mbet mme nti usun emi edade enam utom, enyun enyene unen ndibo ukpeme mbak unana utom.
  2. Kpukpuru owo enyene unen, asari ndomokiet inyeneke ndibiono mmo, ndibo ukem ukem okuk utom ke ini mmo enamde ukem ukem utom.
  3. Owo ekededi emi anamde utom enyene unen ndibo eti ukpe emi ofonde ye enye, ye ufok esie, ndinam mmo edu uwem emi odotde uku ubon owo, onyun enyene unen ndibo mme unwam efen otode ke mme usun efen emi ekemede ndida ndu eti uwem.
  4. Owo ekededi enyene unen ndisiak mme ndiduk nka ke itie utom ekededi emi edikemede ndikpeme udori mme uforo esie.

Ibuot Iko Mbet 24

Owo ekededi enyene unen ndiduok odudu mme ndibo inem uwem, ndiyun nyene akpan ini emi enye anamde utom emi minionke ikaha, ndiyung mbo ukpe ke ini utom, kpa ye ini nduokodudu.

Ibuot Iko Mbet 25

  1. Owo ekededi enyene unen ndidu uwem ke idaha emi ofonde ye nsonidem ye uforo esie kpa ye eke ufok esie. Mme unen emi edude ke mbet emi edi: unen ndiyene udia, edisine nkpo, ufok idun, ndibo usobo ye nti nkpo uwem efen emi obio onode; ye unen ndiyene ufak ye unwam ke ini unana utom, udono, unomo, mkpa anwan mme mkpa ebe, ke ini uson, ye ke ini efen emi owo minyeneke nkpo ndida ndu uwem, minyun ikemeke aba ndiyo uwem esie ikpon.
  2. Mme eka ye ndito-owon enyene unen ndibo asana asana ukpeme ye unwam. Kpukpuru ndito-owon emi emanade enyene ukem ukem unen ye ukpeme ke iso mbet mme mmo emana eto ke ndo mme ke unana ndo.

Ibuot Iko Mbet 26

  1. Owo ekededi enyene unen ndibo ifiok nwed. Edika ufok nwed edidi ke mfon akpanakpan ke akpa ntono. Eyenam kpukpuru ndito-owon eka akpa ntono ufok nwed, ke mmo emade ye ke mmo mimaha. Eyenam mme asana asana ufok nwed ukpep uso, udom-nkpo ye ubok utom edu; kpa ntre nko eyenam mme ufok nwed nta ifiok edu eno kpukpuru owo etiene nte ukeme mmo edide.
  2. Eyenam ukpepnwed edi nkpo emi emenerede uku ye uko owo oyoho oyoho onyun anwamde ndinam mme owo ebat mme ndamana unen owo ye uboho-ufin nte akpan nkpo. Ukpepnwed eyeda unwana, emem ye ima edi ke otu mme idut, mme oruk, ye ke otu mme nsio nsio nka ukpono Abasi; eyenyun esin nkori ono mme utom emi Mboho Edidiana Kiet Ofuri Ekondo enamde ndida emem ndi ke ofuri ekondo.
  3. Mme ete ye mme eka ndito enyene ata akpan unen ndinam ndito mmo ebo oruk ukpep emi mmo emade, enyun efiokde ete ke oruk ukpep oro ofon ye ndito mmo.

Ibuot Iko Mbet 27

  1. Owo ekededi enyene unen, ubiono ndomokiet inyeneke ndidu, ndibuana ke mme nkpo edu uwem amanison ke obio esie, ndibo inemesit mbaña mme ndiye nkpo uso, nyun mbuana ke mme ufon emi otode ke saains.
  2. Owo ekededi enyene unen ndibo ukpeme no mme nkpo emi abanade edu uwem ye inyene esie, otode ke ifiok saains esie, ke ukeme esie ndiwet nwed mme ke nkpo kiet ekededi emi enye edide andinam mme andiwet.

Ibuot Iko Mbet 28

Owo ekededi enyene unen ndidu uwem ke eti idaha ke ekondo emi ekemede ndinam enye okori onyun obo mme unen emi esuande etop ebana ke Edisuan Etop Mbana Mme Unen Owo emi.

Ibuot Iko Mbet 29

  1. Owo ekededi enyene utom emi enye enyenede ndinam ke obio esie emi onode enye ukeme ndikori ke uku ye uko esie.
  2. Ke ndikpeme mme unen ye uboho-ufin esie owo ekededi enyene ndikpeme, man enye okube adana emi mbet emi enimde, ndikpeme nyun nkpono mme unen ye mme usun uboho-ufin mbon eken, nikpeme edu uwem, ye mbet obio ye eti uwem emi ekemde kpukpuru owo ke idak ukara emi kpukpuru owo emekde.
  3. Owo ndomokiet inyeneke ndida mme unen ye mme uboho-ufin emi nsin ke edinam emi ekemede ndibiat mme utom ye mme nti usun edu uwem emi Mboho Edidiana Kiet Ofuri Ekondo amade.

Ibuot Iko Mbet 30

Owo ndomokiet inyeneke unen ndikabare mbet ndomokiet ke nwed Edisuan Etop Mbana Mme Unen Owo emi, no idut ndomokiet, mme nka, mme owo, man oto do mmo enyene unen ndinam nkpo emi ekemede ndibiat mme unen ye mme usun uboho-ufin emi ewetde ke nwed emi.

























Albanian (shqip [ʃcip] or gjuha shqipe [ˈɟuha ˈʃcipɛ], meaning Albanian language) is an Indo-European language spoken by approximately 7.4 million people, primarily in AlbaniaKosovo, the Republic of Macedonia and Greece, but also in other areas of the Balkans in which there is an Albanian population, including Montenegro and Serbia (Presevo Valley). Centuries-old communities speaking Albanian-based dialects can be found scattered in Greece, southern Italy,[3] Sicily, and Ukraine. As a result of a modern diaspora, there are also Albanian speakers elsewhere in those countries and in other parts of the world, including ScandinaviaSwitzerlandGermanyAustria and HungaryUnited KingdomTurkeyAustraliaNew Zealand,NetherlandsSingaporeBrazilCanada, and the United States.

The earliest written document that mentions the Albanian language is a late-13th-century crime report from Dubrovnik. The first audio recording of the Albanian language was made by Norbert Jokl on 4 April 1914 in Vienna.


Official language in



Recognised minority language in

Regulated by

officially by the Social Sciences and Albanological Section of the Academy of Sciences of Albania



The Albanian language is an Indo-European language in a branch by itself, sharing its branch with no other extant language. (The other extant Indo-European languages in a branch by themselves are Armenian and, in some classifications, Greek.) Though sharing lexical isoglosses with Greek, Balto-Slavic, and Germanic, the vocabulary of Albanian is quite distinct. Once hastily grouped with Germanic and Balto-Slavic based on the merger of PIE *ǒ and *ǎ into *ǎ in a supposed "northern group",[8]Albanian has been proven to be distinct from these two because this vowel shift is only part of a larger push chain that affected all long vowels.[9] Albanian does share two features with Balto-Slavic languages: a lengthening of syllabic consonants before voiced obstruents and a distinct treatment of long syllables ending in a sonorant.[10] Conservative features of Albanian include the retention of the distinction between active and middle voice, present tense, and aorist.

Albanian is considered to have evolved from an ancient Paleo-Balkan language, usually taken to be either Illyrian or Thracian, but this is disputed. (See also Thraco-Illyrian and Messapian language.)



The earliest loanwords attested in Albanian are from Doric Greek (probably indirect),[11] whereas the strongest influence was fromLatin. The period during which Proto-Albanian and Latin interacted was protracted and drawn out roughly from the 2nd century BC to the 5th century AD.[12] This is borne out into roughly three layers of borrowings, the largest number belonging to the second layer. The first, with the fewest borrowings, was a time of less important interaction. The final period, probably preceding the Slavic or Germanic invasions, also has a notably smaller number of borrowings. Each layer is characterized by a different treatment of most vowels, the first layer having several that follow the evolution of Early Proto-Albanian into Albanian; later layers reflect vowel changes endemic to Late Latin and presumably Proto-Romance. Other formative changes include the syncretism of several noun case endings, especially in the plural, as well as a large scale palatalization.

A brief period followed, between the 7th and 9th centuries AD, that was marked by heavy borrowings from Southern Slavic, some of which predate the "o-a" shift common to the modern forms of this language group. Starting in the latter 9th century AD, there was a period characterized by protracted contact with the Proto-Romanians, or Vlachs, though lexical borrowing seems to have been mostly one sided—from Albanian into Romanian. Such borrowing indicates that the Romanians migrated from an area where the majority was Slavic (i.e. Middle Bulgarian) to an area with a majority of Albanian speakers (i.e. Dardania) where Vlachs are recorded in the 10th century AD. Their movement is probably related to the expansion of the Bulgarian Empire into Albania around that time. This fact places the Albanians in the western or central Balkans at a rather early date.

According to the central hypothesis of a project undertaken by the Austrian Science Fund FWF, Old Albanian had a significant influence on the development of many Balkan languages. Intensive research now aims to confirm this theory. Albanian is being researched using all available texts before a comparison with other Balkan languages is carried out. The outcome of this work will include the compilation of a lexicon providing an overview of all Old Albanian verbs.[13]



Jernej Kopitar (1780–1844) was the first to note Latin's influence on Albanian and claimed "the Latin loanwords in the Albanian language had the pronunciation of the time of Emperor Augustus". Kopitar gave examples such as Albanian "qiqer" from Latincicer, "qytet" from civitas, "peshk" from piscis and "shigjetë" from sagitta. The hard pronunciations of Latin 〈c〉 and 〈g〉 are retained as palatal and velar stops in the Albanian loanwords. Gustav Meyer (1888) and Wilhelm Meyer-Lübke (1914) later corroborated this.

Eqrem Çabej also noticed, among other things, the archaic Latin elements in Albanian:

  1. Latin /au/ becomes Albanian /a/ in the earliest borrowings: aurum > "ar", gaudium > "gas", laurus > "lar". But Latin /au/ is retained in later borrowings: causa > "kafshë", laud > "lavd".

  2. Latin /ō/ becomes Albanian /e/ in the oldest Latin borrowings: pōmum > "pemë", hōra > "herë". An analogous mutation occurred from Proto-Indo-European to Albanian; PIE *nōs became Albanian "ne", PIE *oḱtō + suffix -ti- became Albanian "tetë" etc.

  3. Latin unstressed internal and initial syllables become lost in Albanian: cubitus > "kub", medicus > "mjek", paludem > V. Latinpadule > "pyll". An analogous mutation occurred from Proto-Indo-European to Albanian. In contrast, in later Latin borrowings, the internal syllable is retained: paganus > "pagan", plaga > "plagë" etc.

  4. Latin /tj/, /dj/, /kj/ palatalized to Albanian /s/, /z/, /c/: vitius > "ves", ratio > "arsye", radius > "rreze", facies > "faqe", socius > "shoq" etc.

Haralambie Mihăescu demonstrated that:

Other authors have detected Latin loanwords in Albanian with an ancient sound pattern from the 1st century BC, for example, Albanian qingëlë from Latin cingula and Albaniane vjetër from Latin vetus/veteris. The Romance languages inherited these words from Vulgar Latin: Vulgar *cingla became N. Romanian chinga, meaning "belly band, saddle girth", and Vulgar veteran became N. Romanian bătrân, meaning "old".

Albanian, Basque, and the surviving Celtic languages such as Irish are the non-Romance languages today that have this sort of extensive Latin element dating from ancient Roman times, which have undergone the sound changes associated with the languages. Other languages such as English only received their Latin and Romance vocabulary during medieval times and are therefore more obvious and closer to their original Latin spellings.