THE INTERNATIONAL BILL OF HUMAN RIGHTS With Multilingual UDHR

 
 
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IDO LANGUAGE

Usage By Country
As with all constructed languages, gauging the number of speakers of Ido is an extremely difficult task. Usenet postings by the prominent Esperantist Don Harlow have estimated the population at being somewhere in the thousands, but no accurate numbers exist. 

 
Background 
Ido was formed by the Delegation for the adoption of an International Auxiliary Language, which met in 1907 in Paris (College de France). The Delegation was composed of eminent scholars from many countries, as well as respected men of affairs or their representatives. The language attained its present form in 1914. The number of speakers of IDO is today between 250 and 1000, similar to the number of speakers of the International language Interlingua. 

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IDO LANGUAGE  Universal Declaration Of Human Rights

 

IDO LANGUAGE UDHR

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights


Universal Deklaro di Homal Yuri

Adoptita e proklamita per rezolvuro 217 A (III) dil Asemblo General di 10ma decembro 1948

Introdukto

Konsiderante ke agnosko dil inheranta digneso e dil egala e netransferebla yuri di omna membri di la familio homal es la fundamento di libereso, yusteso e paco en la mondo,

Konsiderante ke desegardo e desestimo di homal yuri rezultabas en barbara agi, qui insultis la koncienco di la homaro, e l'arivo di mondo en qua homi posedas libereso di parolo e kredo e libereso de timo e bezono esabas proklamata kom la maxim alta aspiro di la homi,

Konsiderante ke oportas, por ke la homi ne esez koaktata rekursar, kom lasta posibleso, a rebeleso kontre tiraneso ed opreso, ke homal yuri devas esar protektata per la regno di la yuro,

Konsiderante ke oportas avancigar la developado di amikal relati inter nacioni,

Konsiderante ke la populi dil Unionita Nacioni afirmabas en la Charto sua fido a fundamental homal yuri, a la digneso e valoro di la homal persono, ed al egala yuri di viri e mulieri, e rezolvabas avancigar social progreso e plu bona vivo-qualesi en plu ampla libereso,

Konsiderante ke la Membro-Stati vovabas ke li atingos, kooperante kun la Unionita Nacioni, la avancigado di universal respekto pri ed obedio di homal yuri e fundamental liberesi,

Konsiderante ke komuna kompreno pri ca yuri e liberesi es di maxim granda importo por la plena realigo di ca vovo,

Nun, konseque,

La General Asemblo,

Proklamas ica Universal Deklaro di Homal Yuri kom komuna normo atingenda por omna populi ed omna nacioni, kun la skopo ke omna individuo ed omna organo di la socio, tenante ca Deklaro sempre en la mento, esforcez per docado ed edukado avancigar respekto pri ca yuri e liberesi e per progresiva procedi, nacional ed internacional, por sekurigar olia universal ed efikiva agnoskeso ed obedieso, ed inter la populi di Membro-Stati ipsa, ed inter la populi di teritorii sub olia resortiso.

Artiklo 1

Omna homi naskas libera ed egala relate digneso e yuri. Li es dotita per raciono e koncienco e devas agar vers l'una l'altra en spirito di frateso.

Artiklo 2

Omnu es yurizita per omna yuri e liberesi prizentita en ca Deklaro, sen distingo irgaspeca, exemple pro raso, koloro, sexuo, linguo, religio, politikal o altra opinioni, nacional o social origino, proprietajo, nasko o altra rango.

Pluse, nula distingo esez facata fondita sur la politikal, resortisal o internacional stando di la lando o teritorio a qua persono apartenas, sive nedependanta, fideikomiso, ne-suguvernanta o sub irga altra limitizo di suvereneso.

Artiklo 3

Omnu havas la yuri pri vivo, libereso, e sekureso di persono.

Artiklo 4

Nulu esez tenat en sklaveso o submiseso; sklaveso e la sklav-komerco esez interdiktata en omna formi.

Artiklo 5

Nulu esez submisat a tormento o a kruela, nehumana o infamiganta trakto o puniso.

Artiklo 6

Omnu havas la yuro esar omnaloke agnoskata kom persono koram la yuro.

Artiklo 7

Omni es egala koram la yuro ed es yurizita sen irga distingo per egala protekto da la yuro. Omni es yurizita per egala protekto kontre irga distingo violacanta ca Deklaro e kontre irga incito a tala distingo.

Artiklo 8

Omnu havas la yuro recevar efikiva remedio da la kompetenta autoritati pro agi qui violacas la fundamental yuri grantita a lu da la konstituco o da la yuro.

Artiklo 9

Nulu esez submisat ad arbitrial aresto, enkarcerigo o exilo.

Artiklo 10

Omnu darfas recevar komplete egale yusta e publika audienco da nedependanta e senpartisa tribunalo, determinante lua yuri ed obligi e pri irga kriminal akuzo kontre lu.

Artiklo 11

  1. Omnu akuzita pri kriminal delikto darfas esar supozata kom senkulpa til ke on pruvas lu kom kulpoza segun la yuro en publika proceso che qua lu havis omna garantii necesa por lua defenso.
  2. Nulu esez deklarata kom kulpoza pri irga punisebla ofenso pro irga ago o omiso qua ne konstitucis punisebla ofenso, segun nacional o internacional lego, kande ol esis facata. Nek esez impozata plu severa puniso kam esis aplikenda kande la ofenso esis facata.

Artiklo 12

Nulu esez submisat ad arbitrial interfero ye lua privateso, familio o korespondo, nek ad ataki kontre lua honoro o reputeso. Omnu darfas recevar protekto da la yuro kontre tala interfero o ataki.

Artiklo 13

  1. Omnu havas la yuro movar libere o lojar libere interne di la frontieri di singla stato.
  2. Omnu havas la yuro livar irga lando, inkluzante sua propra, e retroirar a sua lando.

Artiklo 14

Omnu havas la yuro serchar e posedar en altra landi azilo de persekuto. Ica yuro ne darfas esar advokata kaze di persequi reale efektigita da ne-politikal krimini o da agi kontrea a la skopi e principi dil Unionita Nacioni.

Artiklo 15

  1. Omnu havas la yuro posedar nacionaleso.
  2. Nulu esez arbitriale privacata de sua nacionaleso, ed a nulu esez refuzata la yuro chanjar sua nacionaleso.

Artiklo 16

  1. Viri e mulieri di adulta evo, sen irga limitizo pro raso, nacionaleso o religio, havas la yuro mariajar su e fondar familio. Li es yurizita per egala yuri relate mariajeso, dum mariajeso e pos dissolvo.
  2. Mariajeso eventez nur kun la libera e plena konsento dil intencanta spozi. La familio es la natural e fundamental grup-uneso di la socio ed es yurizita per protekto da la socio e la stato.

Artiklo 17

  1. Omnu havas la yuro proprietar posedaji sole, ultre asocie kun altri.
  2. Nulu esez arbitriale privacata de sua posedaji.

Artiklo 18

Omnu havas la yuro posedar libereso di penso, koncienco e religio; ica yuro inkluzas libereso chanjar onua religio o kredo, e libereso, o sole o komune e publike o private, manifestar sua religio o kredo per docar, praktikar, adorar ed obediar.

Artiklo 19

Omnu havas la yuro opinionar ed expresar libere; ica yuro inkluzas libereso tenar opinioni sen interfero e sendar, recevar e komunikar informi ed idei per irga moyeno e ne-egardante frontieri.

Artiklo 20

  1. Omnu havas la yuro posedar libereso di pacoza asemblo ed asocio.
  2. On ne darfas koaktar ulu apartenar ad asociuro.

Artiklo 21

  1. Omnu havas la yuro partoprenar la guvernado di sua lando, direte o per libere elektita reprezentanti.
  2. Omnu havas la egala yuro acesar publika ofico en sua lando.
  3. La volo di la homi esez la bazo dil autoritato di guvernado; ica volo esez expresata per periodal ed autentika elekti qui eventez per universal ed egala voto-yuro ed esez exekutata per sekreta voto o per equivalanta libera voto-procedi.

Artiklo 22

Omnu, kom membro di la socio, havas la yuro recevar social sekureso ed es yurizita per realigo, per nacional esforco ed internacional koopero e segun la organizeso e resursi di singla stato, dil ekonomial, social e kultural yuri nekareebla por lua digneso e la libera developo di lua personeso.

Artiklo 23

  1. Omnu havas la yuro laborar, libere selektar employeso, juar yusta e favoroza labor-kondicioni e protekto kontre ne-employeso.
  2. Omnu, sen irga distingo, havas la yuro recevar egala pago pro egala laboro.
  3. Omnu qua laboras havas la yuro recevar yusta e favoroza rekompenso garantianta por lu ipsa e lua familio existo necesa por homal digneso e suplementita, se necesa, per altra moyeni di social protekto.
  4. Omnu havas la yuro formacar ed unionar su kun mestier-sindikati por protektar sua interesti.

Artiklo 24

Omnu havas la yuro juar repozo e liber-tempo, inkluzante racionoza limitizo di labor-hori e periodal vakanci kun pago.

Artiklo 25

  1. Omnu havas la yuro juar vivo-kondicioni suficanta por la saneso e bonstando di su ipsa e di sua familio, inkluzante manjajo, vesti, hemizo e medikal sorgo e necesa social servi, e la yuro juar sekureso okazione di ne-employeso, maladeso, invalideso, vidveso, oldeso, o altra manko di vivo-pekunio en cirkonstanci exter lua povo.
  2. Kaze di matreso o puereso on es yurizita recevar aparta sorgo e helpo. Omna filii, naskinta sive en, sive exter mariajeso, juez la sama social protekto.

Artiklo 26

  1. Omnu havas la yuro esar edukata. Edukado esez gratuita, adminime la primara e fundamental etapi. Primara edukado esez obligal. Teknikal e profesional edukado esez igata generale disponebla e plu alta instrukteso esez egale acesebla ad omni segun merito.
  2. Edukado esez direktat al ampla developo di la homal personeso ed a la plufortigo di respekto pri homal yuri e fundamentala liberesi. Ol avancigez kompreno, tolero ed amikeso inter omna nacioni, rasal o religial grupi, ed avancigez l'aktivesi dil Unionita Nacioni por la manteno di paco.
  3. Genitori havas priora yuro selektar la speco di edukado quan lia filii recevos.

Artiklo 27

Omnu havas la yuro libere partoprenar la kultural vivo di la komuneso, juar l'arti e profitar per ciencal avanco e lua benefici. Omnu havas la yuro recevar la protekto di sua etikal e material interesti rezultanta de ula ciencal, literatural o artal produkturo di qua lu es l'autoro.

Artiklo 28

Omnu es yurizita per social ed internacional ordino en qua la yuri e liberesi enuncita en ca Deklaro povas esar plene realigata.

Artiklo 29

  1. Omnu havas devi a la komuneso en quo unike la libera e plena developo di lua personeso es posibla.
  2. Exercante sua yuri e liberesi, omnu esez submisata a nur la limitizi determinita da la yuro nur por sekurigar meritat agnosko e respekto pri la yuri e liberesi di altri e por atingar la yusta postuli di etikaleso, publika ordino e la general bonstando en demokratial socio.
  3. Ica yuri e liberesi nulkaze darfas esar exercata kontree a la skopi e principi dil Unionita Nacioni.

Artiklo 30

Nulo en ca Deklaro darfas esar interpretata kom implikanta por irga Stato, grupo o persono, irga yuro partoprenar irga aktiveso o facar irga ago vizanta la destrukto di irga yuro o libereso hike enuncita.



 

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Albanian (shqip [ʃcip] or gjuha shqipe [ˈɟuha ˈʃcipɛ], meaning Albanian language) is an Indo-European language spoken by approximately 7.4 million people, primarily in AlbaniaKosovo, the Republic of Macedonia and Greece, but also in other areas of the Balkans in which there is an Albanian population, including Montenegro and Serbia (Presevo Valley). Centuries-old communities speaking Albanian-based dialects can be found scattered in Greece, southern Italy,[3] Sicily, and Ukraine. As a result of a modern diaspora, there are also Albanian speakers elsewhere in those countries and in other parts of the world, including ScandinaviaSwitzerlandGermanyAustria and HungaryUnited KingdomTurkeyAustraliaNew Zealand,NetherlandsSingaporeBrazilCanada, and the United States.

The earliest written document that mentions the Albanian language is a late-13th-century crime report from Dubrovnik. The first audio recording of the Albanian language was made by Norbert Jokl on 4 April 1914 in Vienna.

 

Official language in

 Albania


 Kosovo

Recognised minority language in

 Italy
 Macedonia
 Montenegro
 Bulgaria
 Romania
 Serbia
 Croatia
Regulated by

officially by the Social Sciences and Albanological Section of the Academy of Sciences of Albania

 

LINGUISTIC AFFINITIES

The Albanian language is an Indo-European language in a branch by itself, sharing its branch with no other extant language. (The other extant Indo-European languages in a branch by themselves are Armenian and, in some classifications, Greek.) Though sharing lexical isoglosses with Greek, Balto-Slavic, and Germanic, the vocabulary of Albanian is quite distinct. Once hastily grouped with Germanic and Balto-Slavic based on the merger of PIE *ǒ and *ǎ into *ǎ in a supposed "northern group",[8]Albanian has been proven to be distinct from these two because this vowel shift is only part of a larger push chain that affected all long vowels.[9] Albanian does share two features with Balto-Slavic languages: a lengthening of syllabic consonants before voiced obstruents and a distinct treatment of long syllables ending in a sonorant.[10] Conservative features of Albanian include the retention of the distinction between active and middle voice, present tense, and aorist.

Albanian is considered to have evolved from an ancient Paleo-Balkan language, usually taken to be either Illyrian or Thracian, but this is disputed. (See also Thraco-Illyrian and Messapian language.)

 

LINGUISTIC INFLUENCES

The earliest loanwords attested in Albanian are from Doric Greek (probably indirect),[11] whereas the strongest influence was fromLatin. The period during which Proto-Albanian and Latin interacted was protracted and drawn out roughly from the 2nd century BC to the 5th century AD.[12] This is borne out into roughly three layers of borrowings, the largest number belonging to the second layer. The first, with the fewest borrowings, was a time of less important interaction. The final period, probably preceding the Slavic or Germanic invasions, also has a notably smaller number of borrowings. Each layer is characterized by a different treatment of most vowels, the first layer having several that follow the evolution of Early Proto-Albanian into Albanian; later layers reflect vowel changes endemic to Late Latin and presumably Proto-Romance. Other formative changes include the syncretism of several noun case endings, especially in the plural, as well as a large scale palatalization.

A brief period followed, between the 7th and 9th centuries AD, that was marked by heavy borrowings from Southern Slavic, some of which predate the "o-a" shift common to the modern forms of this language group. Starting in the latter 9th century AD, there was a period characterized by protracted contact with the Proto-Romanians, or Vlachs, though lexical borrowing seems to have been mostly one sided—from Albanian into Romanian. Such borrowing indicates that the Romanians migrated from an area where the majority was Slavic (i.e. Middle Bulgarian) to an area with a majority of Albanian speakers (i.e. Dardania) where Vlachs are recorded in the 10th century AD. Their movement is probably related to the expansion of the Bulgarian Empire into Albania around that time. This fact places the Albanians in the western or central Balkans at a rather early date.

According to the central hypothesis of a project undertaken by the Austrian Science Fund FWF, Old Albanian had a significant influence on the development of many Balkan languages. Intensive research now aims to confirm this theory. Albanian is being researched using all available texts before a comparison with other Balkan languages is carried out. The outcome of this work will include the compilation of a lexicon providing an overview of all Old Albanian verbs.[13]

 

LATIN ELEMENT OF THE ALBANIAN LANGUAGE

Jernej Kopitar (1780–1844) was the first to note Latin's influence on Albanian and claimed "the Latin loanwords in the Albanian language had the pronunciation of the time of Emperor Augustus". Kopitar gave examples such as Albanian "qiqer" from Latincicer, "qytet" from civitas, "peshk" from piscis and "shigjetë" from sagitta. The hard pronunciations of Latin 〈c〉 and 〈g〉 are retained as palatal and velar stops in the Albanian loanwords. Gustav Meyer (1888) and Wilhelm Meyer-Lübke (1914) later corroborated this.

Eqrem Çabej also noticed, among other things, the archaic Latin elements in Albanian:

  1. Latin /au/ becomes Albanian /a/ in the earliest borrowings: aurum > "ar", gaudium > "gas", laurus > "lar". But Latin /au/ is retained in later borrowings: causa > "kafshë", laud > "lavd".

  2. Latin /ō/ becomes Albanian /e/ in the oldest Latin borrowings: pōmum > "pemë", hōra > "herë". An analogous mutation occurred from Proto-Indo-European to Albanian; PIE *nōs became Albanian "ne", PIE *oḱtō + suffix -ti- became Albanian "tetë" etc.

  3. Latin unstressed internal and initial syllables become lost in Albanian: cubitus > "kub", medicus > "mjek", paludem > V. Latinpadule > "pyll". An analogous mutation occurred from Proto-Indo-European to Albanian. In contrast, in later Latin borrowings, the internal syllable is retained: paganus > "pagan", plaga > "plagë" etc.

  4. Latin /tj/, /dj/, /kj/ palatalized to Albanian /s/, /z/, /c/: vitius > "ves", ratio > "arsye", radius > "rreze", facies > "faqe", socius > "shoq" etc.

Haralambie Mihăescu demonstrated that:

Other authors have detected Latin loanwords in Albanian with an ancient sound pattern from the 1st century BC, for example, Albanian qingëlë from Latin cingula and Albaniane vjetër from Latin vetus/veteris. The Romance languages inherited these words from Vulgar Latin: Vulgar *cingla became N. Romanian chinga, meaning "belly band, saddle girth", and Vulgar veteran became N. Romanian bătrân, meaning "old".

Albanian, Basque, and the surviving Celtic languages such as Irish are the non-Romance languages today that have this sort of extensive Latin element dating from ancient Roman times, which have undergone the sound changes associated with the languages. Other languages such as English only received their Latin and Romance vocabulary during medieval times and are therefore more obvious and closer to their original Latin spellings.

 

     
     
     

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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